Herpetology of Ethiopia and Eritrea


Hyperoliidae Laurent, 1943



Afrixalus:
Rather medium or small frogs with big eyes and vertical pupil. Teeth on the vomer missing. The digits ended by prominent discs. Females lays on the leaves, above watter, small number of eggs which is connected by jelly. Tadpoles develop in water.



Afrixalus clarkei Largen, 1974


Afrixalus clarkei - Bedelle, Ethiopia
Afrixalus clarkei - Bedelle, Ethiopia

Description:
A small frog. Males reaches a lenght 20-23 mm, females about 23 mm. Dorsum green or yellow-brown, with wide dark brown lateral stripes and usually with traces of dorsolateral dark lines. Males have well developed gular vocal sacs with small glands. Large dark Irregular spots are usually concentrated at the rear and the top surface of the tibia. The thoracic gland is missing.
Head rather large, broader than long; tympanum almost hidden; snout shorter than the diameter of the eye; nostril closer to snout tip than to eye; interorbital space appreciably broader than an upper eyelid. Hindlimbs relatively short; a trace of web between fingers III and IV; webbing of foot moderate; distal subarticular tubercles of two outer fingers single; metatarsal tubercles moderately well developed. Dorsum smooth; chest and abdomen rather coarsely granular; a distinct, slightly swollen, yellowish gland on underside of tarsus; gular flap relatively small with much dilatable skin posteriorly.
Dorsum yellow-green to bright green, more rarely olive to dark brown; usually with few to numerous, irregularly scattered small white flecks and larger dark brown spots; some of the latter concentrated to form a pair of dorsolateral rows or solid lines, nearly always present near the tip of the urostyle, and when best developed extending forward to the shoulder region. A broad brown stripe from snout tip to eye, continuing behind the eye almost to the groin; marked by darker spots and fine white speckling and edged above by a darker line or row of spots which, on the snout, forms a canthal stripe. Outer edge of forearm, tibia and tarsus with a similar stripe or row of dark spots, the pigmentation extending onto the two outer fingers and toes; inner edge of forearm and tibia with a more or less well developed row of dark spots. Underside of limbs yellow, the discs sometimes reddish; chest and abdomen creamy-white; gular flap of males yellow [According to LARGEN].

Distribution:
This species is endemic to southwestern Ethiopia, where it is known from three locations (neighborhood Bonga, and Bedell) at altitudes from 1000 to 2,000 m. Range of distribution will probably involve a much larger area of forests in southwest Ethiopia.

Description:
Largen, M. J. 1974. The status of the genus Afrixalus (Amphibia, Anura, Hyperoliidae) in Ethiopia, including descriptions of two new species. Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Nuova Serie, Supplemento. Firenze 5: 111-127.

Common english name: Clarke's Banana Frog

Afrixalus clarkei - locality, Metu - Sor river, Illubabor keflehager, Ethiopia




Afrixalus enseticola Largen, 1974

Description:
A small frog. Males reach a lenght 20-23 mm, females 23-28mm. It inhabits the edges of tropical forests and forest clearings in the south-western and south Ethiopia in altitude about 1800 m - 2200 m. Basic color of dorsum is brown with dark wide stripe on the back, which form a triangle on top of the head. Some specimens have this stripe unclear, in silvery color with dark edges, but sometimes missing. Like in other species, there is significant variability in colouration. Females are significantly larger than males. The males have gular sac with large glands. They have also several large and dark bumps on the chin and on gular flip. Beyond breeding period is the glands on the chest, legs and fingers less pronounced.
Head rather large, broader than long; tympanum hidden; snout shorter than the diameter of the eye; nostril much closer to snout tip than to eye; interorbital space appreciably broader than an upper eyelid. Hindlimbs relatively long; fingers unwebbed; webbing of foot moderate (Fig. 9); distal subarticular tubercles of two outer fingers conspicuously double; metatarsal tubercles distinct but rather small, the outer situated rather distally. Back slightly warty, chest and abdomen rather coarsely granular; gular flap broad, oval, situated rather posteriorly and leaving no dilatable skin exposed.
Dorsum pale yellowish-brown, red-brown or dark brown according to the degree of expansion of chromatophores on the semi-transparent background; sometimes with a few irregularly scattered silver spots. Typically, a triangle on top of the snout, the upper eyelids and a broad dorsolateral stripe bright silver with a dark brown margin above and below, the pattern on the snout edged below by the dark canthal stripe. 75% of specimens with a poorly to well defined vertebral line, silver in colour and with dark margins. One female from Jimma has the silver markings limited to a few blotches on the snout and uppel' eyelids, while two others from the same locality show intermediate stages in this reduction of pattern. A single male from west of Bonga has a silvery suffusion over the whole anterior region of the back. Underside of limbs yellowish or flesh-coloured, the digital discs yellow; chest and abdomen white or creamy; gular flap of males yellow. [According to LARGEN].

Distribution:
Ethiopian highland at altitude between 1800 m - 2400 m asl., on both sides of the Rift Valley, in the forested areas and on the edges of tropical montane forests.

Note:
It is known only from three localities. Two of these are at an altitude of 1800 m in areas of cleared tropical deciduous forest in southwestern Ethiopia, where the species is sympatric with A. clarkei [LARGEN].

Description original:
Largen, M. J. 1974. The status of the genus Afrixalus (Amphibia, Anura, Hyperoliidae) in Ethiopia, including descriptions of two new species. Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Nuova Serie, Supplemento. Firenze 5: 111-127.

Common english name: Bonga Banana Frog




Afrixalus fulvovittatus (Cope, 1861)

Afrixalus fulvovittatus, Gambella, Ethiopia Afrixalus fulvovittatus, Gambella, Ethiopia Afrixalus fulvovittatus, Gambella, Ethiopia Afrixalus fulvovittatus, Gambella, Ethiopia

Description:
A medium sized species of the genus Afrixalus. Males reach a lenght 23 až 27 mm, females 25-28mm. Occur savanna and bushland areas. Dorsum dark brown with three regular light longitudinal stripes of equal width, confluent on the head. This regulary striped species from the genus is characteristic of the savanna and grassland in the subsaharan Africa.We know two different population. First is small, slender, with light stripes without fine dark midline, two dark dorsal lines without an expansion at eye level. Small dorsal asperities in males. Strictly savanna-living. Second is stout, fine dark line or median punctuation in light lines, dark dorsal lines expanded on the upper eyelid. No dorsal asperities in males. Savanna and bushland, or bushland alone. Some authors consider the population which living east of West Africa (Ivory Coast, Guinea, Liberia, Siera Leone and Ghana) for a species belonging to the Afrixalus vittiger.
Středně velký druh rodu Afrixalus. Samci dorůstají velikosti 23 až 27 mm, samice 25-28mm. Obývá savany a křovinaté semiaridní oblasti. Hřbet tmavě hnědý s třemi pravidelnými světlými podélnými proužky stejné šířky, splývající na hlavě. Tento pravidelně pruhovaný druh je charakteristický a hojný druh savan a otevřených lesů v severní polovině Afriky. Podle Perreta jsou dvě charakteristické skupiny v rámci tohoto druhu. První je s úzkým, světlým pruhem ve střední linii a dvěma tmavými hřbetními linkami v úrovni očí. Malé hřbetní hrbolky u samců. Otevřená savana. Druhá forma je zavalitá, s jemnou tmavou čárou ve středu hřbetu, tmavé hřbetní linie se rozšiřují na horní víčko a je bez hřbetních hrbolků u samců. Lesnatá savana. Ve velké čáasti areálu najdeme řadu forem vykazujících znaky obou těchto skupin. Někteří autoři považují populace žijící na východ od západní Afriky (Pobřeží Slonoviny, Guinea, Libérie, Siera Leone a Ghana) za druh náležející k okruhu Afrixalus vittiger.

Distribution:
This species occur in the mountainous and savanna areas of West Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Ghana), from the savannas zone extends up to Western Ethiopia (Gambella) and southern Sudan.

Note:
They inhabit the moist savanna habitat in sub-Saharan Africa. They breed in the rainy season in periodic or permanent waters ponds. Females lay eggs on aquatic plants. In Largen 1974 as Afrixalus leptosomus; as A. quadrivittatus in Schiøtz 1975 and as A. leptosomus in Schiøtz 1974.

Descriptione original:
Cope, E. D. 1861 "1860". Descriptions of new species of the reptilian genera Hyperolius, Liuperus and Tropidodipsas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12: 517-518.

Described as Hyperolius fulvovittatus

Common english name: Banded Banana Frog

Afrixalus fulvovittatus - locality, Baro hotel, Gambella, Illubabor keflehager, Ethiopia























































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