Herpetology of Ethiopia and Eritrea


Our records => Agamidae Gray, 1827


genus Acanthocercus,  Fitzinger, 1845


Acanthocercus annectens (BLANFORD, 1870)


Acanthocercus annectens - male, Wabe Shebelle Valley, E Ethiopia
Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens
Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens
Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens Acanthocercus annectens

Short description:
Head triangular, broad; scales on body heterogenous, smooth, including limbs (sometimes slightly keeled); vertebral scales enlarged; unbroken tail very long, more than twice than snout-vent length, covered by mucronate scales which are smaller than in other species of the genus, arranged in whorls; pronounced superciliary arcs; blue eyelids in males;
A medium-sized agama. Maximum lenght up to 450 mm (males). Head subtriangular, flat, the length twice the height at the eyes, and exceeding the breadth in the proportion of 4 to 3. Nose rather blunt, terminated by a single punctulated rostral scale, much more broad than high; nostrils towards the hinder part of a swoUen subovate scale, separated by one or two scales from the rostral. Canthus rostralis and supra-orbital ridge prominent, terminatiag at the nasal scale, Frenal region depressed, covered with small elongate scales. Forepart of the head covered with nearly flat scales, those in the centre a little longer than the others ; occiput covered with flat scales towards the forehead, whilst behind and towards the temporal regions they are slightly keeled. Ear-opening large, nearly equal to the eye. A few spines scattered around it, especially behind eyelid, covered with small scales. Mental shield almost oval, a little broader than high. Supra-labials about 14, not extending to the gape, the row of larger scales constituting them being, however, continued backwards, and terminating in a small spine above the gape. Infralabials 1213, also not extending back quite as far as the gape. Chin covered with small rhomboidal scales decreasing in size backwards. Throat with two or three irregular cross folds. Back not crested, covered with small imbricate scales, those near the centre larger and slightly keeled, especially towards the front. A few scattered spines of small size between the shoulders. Tail longer than the head and body; scales a little larger than elsewhere, strongly keeled, disposed in narrow rings in front, but becoming gradually imbricate towards the tip. Scales of the belly small, smooth, rhombic, subequal. Pre-anal pores eight in a single row. Third and fourth toes in the fore foot subequal; in the hind foot the third toe is very little shorter than the fourth. Point of longest hind toe reaching the eye when the hind leg is laid along the side. Fore toe just extending back to the thigh. In males, on nuptial color, blue eye-lids. Typical for A.annectens is very long and thin tail, much longer than in other species [according to BLANFORD].
Head depressed; snout as long as the diameter of the orbit nostril lateral, slightly tubular, on the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales smooth; occipital not enlarged; a few small spinose scales on the side of the head near the ear; latter entirely exposed, much larger than the eye-opening. Throat much plicate; no gular pouch. Body depressed; dorsal scales small, rhomboidal, imbricate, very slightly keeled, largest on the vertebral region, very small on the sides; scattered small spines on the nuchal region; ventral scales perfectly smooth, nearly as large as the median dorsals. Limbs long and strong; digits compressed; fourth finger very slightly longer than third; fourth toe a little longer than third, fifth extending beyond first. Tail compressed, covered with moderately large keeled scales forming annuli in front, but becoming gradually imbricate towards the tip. Male with a double row of prasanal pores. Rufous-brown above, with small irregular blackish rings and a lighter vertebral band [According to Boulenger].

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. This species occur from extreme north east Kenya? (Dandu, Malka Murri - SPAWLS 2002) to Ethiopian Ogaden, eastward to Harar, Deketa, north to Tygray, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti. They present localy, in rocky habitats on semi-desert areas.

Behavior:
Poorly known species. It inhabits semi-desert and rocky areas, covered with sparse vegetation, but also on old buildings, ruins, bridges...etc. Insectivorous, but also feed small vertebrates...Oviparous.

Description original:
Blanford, W.T. Observations of the geology and zoology of Abyssinia, made 1867-68. McMillan (London), XII + 487 pp.

Described as Agama annectans
Common english name: Eritrean Ridgeback Agama
Our Records

A.annectens - locality, eastern slopes of Tigray mountains, road from Mekele to Hemadela (Danakil), Ethiopia




Acanthocercus atricollis (SMITH, 1849)

A.atricollis - Nuptial colored of adult male at Langano, Ethiopia

Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis
Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis
Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis
Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis
Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis Acanthocercus atricollis

Short description:
Head big, broad; body scales heterogenous, keeled, some of them enlarged and mucronate; vertebral scales enlarged, keeled; tail strong, shorter than in A.annectens, arranged in distinct whorls; males in nuptial color blue, base of tail yellow; 10-12 preanal pores in two rows; midbody scale rows 100-136;
Head large (especially in the male, which has the cheeks strongly swollen), convex, with very prominent supraciliary - ridges; nostril lateral, slightly tubular, pierced on the canthus rostralis; upper head-scales mostly feebly keeled: occipital not enlarged; small scattered spinose scales on the cheeks; ear exposed, larger than the eye-opening; male without a regular gular pouch. Body moderately depressed; dorsal scales small, rhomboidal, keeled, larger on the vertebral region, everywhere intermixed with enlarged, strongly keeled, pointed scales, which sometimes form longitudinal series on the vertebral region; a slight nuchal denticulation; a more or less marked curved fold from the neck to the middle of the side; ventral scales smooth. Limbs moderately elongate, with compressed digits; the scales on the upper surface of the limbs irregular in size, keeled; third and fourth fingers nearly equal; fourth toe very slightly longer than third, fifth extending beyond first. Tail very slightly compressed, about twice as long as the distance from gular fold to vent; the scales strongly keeled, and forming rather regular annuli, those on the upper surface much enlarged, with denticulated edge. Male with a double row of anal pores. Olive or brown above, marbled or reticulated with blackish; young with XX-shaped black markings across the back; a large black spot in front of the shoulder; lower surfaces lighter; throat with dark network, blue in the male [According to BOULENGER].
Acanthocercus atricollis minutus:
Diagnose: Eine mittelgro絽 Unterart, der Schwanz ist durdrsdmittlich um ein Viertel l鄚gerals die Kopf + RumpfL鄚ge. Die Vertebralzone ist kleinschuppig, begrenzt von gro絽n spinosen Dorsalschuppen. Gesamtl鄚ge selten ber 25 cm hinausreichend, meistens kleiner.
Allgemeine Verbreitung: Die Unterart bewohntdie Gebiete von Kenia(?) und 礫hiopien; Die Grenzen der Verbreitung im N, O und W sind noch unbekannt.
Beschkreibung: In der K顤perform unterscheidet sich diese Unterart von atricollis und loveridgei durch ihre auff鄟lige Kleinheit. Auch LOVERIDGE (1920) weist auf diese zierlichen Stcke hin. Ausgewachsene 66 berschreiten selten eine L鄚ge von 25 cm, 99 sind meist kleiner als 22 cm. Die Masseterwlste sind nicht auff鄟lig breit. Der Schwanz ist im Verh鄟tnis zum K顤per ebenso lang Wie bei atricollis, und zwar um 1/4 bis 1/3 l鄚ger als der K顤per.
In der Pholidose unterscheidet sich diese Unterart von den brigen dadurch, da der Vertebralstreifen aus mittelgro絽n, nur schwach gekielten Schuppen besteht. Begrenzt wird dieser Streifen von einer Reihe gro絽r und Stark gekielter Dorsalsdruppen.
In der F酺bung ist das Tier recht unscheinbar. Beim ♂ ist der Rcken br酳nlich bis schieferfarben; die Kopfoberseite grnlich. Die Kehle ist bl酳lich retikuliert; der Bauch sehmutzig wei. Ober- und Unterseite des Schwanzes sind mittel bis dunkelbraun, vielfach mit schwarz-braunen Ringen, die teils schmal, teils aber auch sehr breit sind [KLAUSEWITZ in original].
Acanthocercus atricollis gregorii:
Diagnose: Eine besonders gro絽 und kr輎tige Unterart ohne irregul酺e Fleckung, jedoch mit auffallend heller F酺bung, der in fnf Longitudinalreihen angeordneten dorsalen Gro腠chuppen. Die F酺bung von Rcken und Flanken ist mittel- bis lichtblau. Der Schwanz ist um die H鄟fte l鄚ger als der K顤per. Masseterwlste der ♂♂ sind auffallend stark.
Allgemeine Verbreitung: Diese Unterart ist offenbar nur auf den Kstenstreifen zwischen Lamu und Tanga beschr鄚kt. Das aus Bagamojo stammende Exemplar hat bereits leichte Ankl鄚ge an die Unterart loveridgei.
Beschreibung: In der K顤perform fallen die Tiere dieser Unterart durch ihre bedeutende Gr廲e auf; sie sind etwas gr廲er als die Nominatrasse und viel gr廲er als die brigen Unterarten. Adulte ♂♂ k霵nen ber 36 cm lang werden, adulte ♀♀ ber 30cm. Die Angabe von G逴THER (1894), da gregorii keine Lateralfalte aufweise, ist unrichtig. In der P h o l i d o s e ist fr diese Unterart bezeichnend, da gro絽 Dorsalschuppen fast stets in fnf regelm魠igen Longitudinalreihen angeordnet vom Hinterkopfansatz bzw. Nakken bis in die Bedrengegend verlaufen. Bei der F r b u n g des ♂ wechselt die Kopfoberseite zwischen gelbgrn und lichtem blaugrn. Der Rcken ist einfarbig mittel- bis hellblau. Die fr die Unterarten atricollis und loveridgei charakteristische Fleckung auf dunklem Grund fehlt bei dieser Rasse v闤lig. Hingegen sind die Gro-Schuppen der Vertebralzone hell grnlich, bl酳lich oder gelblich gef酺bt und hebenisich dadurch von der etwas dunkleren K顤perpartie deutlich ab. Die Kehle ist grnblau, Brust und Bauch sind schmutzig wei, die Schwanzwurzel ist gelblich bis gelbbraun, der brige Schwanzteil mittelbraun. Das ♀ ist in der F酺bung ziemlich monoton schiefergrau bis br酳nlich. Auch hier ist die Dorsalgegend etwas lichter. Die fr die ♀♀ der Unterarten atricollis und loveridgei charakteristische Fleckung konnte nicht festgestellt werden [KLAUSEWITZ in original].

Distribution:
East part of Africa from the south to Ethiopia and Somalia. In Ethiopia mostly south and central part of the country. Its common in Rift Valley, southwest to Jinka, eastward to Borana, south to Kenya border (Moyale).

Behavior:
It inhabits tree and grassy savannas in the low and medium altitudes, does not live in the strongly deforested and arid habitats, also does not live at high altitudes. They occupies mostly tree trunks or large stones and rocky outcrops, sometimes termite hills. But I saw them also on buildings in the city (Jinka). However, they prefer large trees and trunks. They feeds different arthropods, and small vertebrates. Like other agamas from the area lay eggs, their number can be up to 25. The eggs laid into holes, under rocks, or under fallen tree trunks. The incubation period two months.

Note:
In Ethiopia occur Acanthocercus atricollis minutus KLAUSEWITZ, 1957 and Acanthocercus atricollis gregorii KLAUSEWITZ, 1957.

Description original:
Smith, A.: Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa. 3 (Reptiles). London, Smith, Elder & Co.

Described as Agama atricollis
Common english name: Blue-headed tree agama
Our Records

A.atricollis - Locality, Alaba Kulito, Ethiopia




Acanthocercus cyanogaster (R鄆PELL, 1835)

A.cyanogaster - Male, Eritrea
Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster
Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster
Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster Acanthocercus cyanogaster

Description:
Head big, broad; pronounced superciliary arcs; body scales heterogenous, keeled, vertebral scales enlarged, feebly keeled; scales on limbs enlarged, strongly keeled; tail long, but shorter than in A.annectens, covered by mucronate scales, arranged in distinct whorls; tympanum in the same size like the eye; throat, belly and tail blue or blue marbled in nuptial color of males.
Head moderately depressed; nostril lateral, not tubular, below the canthus rostralis; upper head-scales smooth ; occipital not enlarged; small conical spinose scales on the sides of the head near the ear; latter exposed, larger than the eye-opening; throat strongly plicate, no gular pouch. Body depressed, with a distinct fold on each side of the back; dorsal scales rather large, irregular, feebly keeled on the vertebral region, minute and intermixed with enlarged ones on the sides; a series of small spinose scales on the dorsal folds; ventral scales smooth, smaller than the largest dorsals. Limbs moderately elongate, with compressed digits; the scales on the upper surface of the limbs irregular in size, keeled; fourth finger very slightly longer than third; fourth toe very slightly longer than third, fifth extending beyond first. Tail round, nearly twice as long as the distance from gular fold to vent; the sceiles strongly keeled, shortly mucronate, forming regular annuli. Male with a patch of anal pores, Olive-brown above, spotted or reticulated dark blue in the breeding male [According to BOULENGER].
Type species of the genus Acanthocercus.

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. They are reported from some localities in Kenya, Tanzania or Somalia, but most likely its misidentified with Acanthocercus atricollis. Relevant records are documented only from central and north Ethiopia and Eritrea (Terra Typica - Massawa?, Eritrea). In Ethiopia occur from the central part to the north [Debre Zeit, vicinity of Addis Abeba (Ayat), Harar?, Wabi Shebelle?, Bahir Dar, Gondar, Axum, and in Eritrea around Asmara, Mendefera or Debarwa area]. At altitudes of about 1800 - 2500 m.

Note:
Its nhabits highland savanna, where associated with rocky-outcrops, stony hills, or big rocks, often in agricultural areas at altitude 1800 - 2500 m. At some locations occupies also stone buildings and broken walls. In the north Ethiopia and in Eritrea we found them on ancient ruins and old castles (Gondar, Lalibella, Axum). Insectivorous. The females lays about 15 eggs.

Description original:
Rppell, E.: Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien geh顤ig, entdeckt und beschrieben. Amphibien. S. Schmerber, Frankfurt a. M.

Described as Stellio cyanogaster
Common english name: Blue-bellied Ridgeback agama
Our Records

A.cyanogaster - Locality near Asmara, Eritrea






Acanthocercus phillipsii (BOULENGER, 1895)

A.phillipsii - Somaliland
Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii
Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii
Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii Acanthocercus phillipsii

Short description:
Head triangular, slightly depressed; body scales smooth, on flanks some of them enlarged and keeled; on dorsum two dorsolateral longitudinal folds; vertebral scales enlarged; limbs covered by strongly keeled, mucronate and enlarged scales; tail long as snout-vent length, covered by strongly mucronate scales (16 - 21), arranged in distinct whorls; on dorsum vertebral white or yellowish band which extend from neck to base of tail.
Head depressed; snout as long as the diameter of the orbit; nostril lateral, slightly tubular, on the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales smooth or obtusely keeled ; occipital not enlarged; groups of small spinose scales near the ear; latter entirely exposed, much larger than the eye-opening. Throat much plicate ; no gular pouch. Body much depressed, with a fold on each side of the back; scales on vertebral region enlarged, polygonal, smooth, minute and granular on the sides of the back, larger and keeled on the tlanks; ventral scales small, smooth. Scales on limbs large and imbricate, strongly keeled, nearly as large as caudals. Fourth finger slightly longer than third; fourth toe a little longer than third, fifth extending beyond first. Tail scarcely compressed, covered with strongly keeled mucronate scales, forming rather irregular annuli. Male with two rows of large preanal pores. Back blackish, with small greenish-white spots and a broad greenish-white vertebral stripe; head, limbs, and tail olive above; throat with a wide-meshed blackish network; belly and lower surface of limbs bluish grey; preanal pores orange; lower surface of tail yellowish [according to BOULENGER].

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia and northern Somalia (Somaliland), Djibouti?, Eritrea?.
In Ethiopia, the eastern parts adjacent to Somalia (Dire Dawa).

Behavior:
Poorly known species. It inhabits arid, warm and rocky areas, mostly rocky-outcrops, covered only by small bushes and succulent vegetation (Commiphora, Aloe, Caralumma, Adenia, Opuntia, Echidnopsis) at altitudes up to 1,500 m. Insectivorous, oviparous.

Description original:
Boulenger, G. A.: On the reptiles and batrachians obtained by Mr. E. Lort-Phillips in Somaliland. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 16:165-169

Note:
Formerly valid species Agama trachypleura is synonymized with Acanthocercus philipsii.
Largen, M.J.; Spawls. 2006. Lizards of Ethiopia (Reptilia Sauria): an annotated checklist, bibliography, gazetteer and identification. Tropical Zoology 19(1): 21-109
Described as Agama phillipsii
Common english name: Philipps Ridgeback Agama
Our Records

A.phillipsii - locality, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia





Acanthocercus guentherpetersi LARGEN & SPAWLS, 2006

A.guentherpetersi - Eritrea
Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi
Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi
Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi Acanthocercus guentherpetersi

Short description:
Similar to A.phillipsii; head triangular, slightly depressed; body scales smooth, including on flanks (sometimes some of them enlarged); vertebral scales enlarged; scales on limbs heterogenous, enlarged, keeled (not as much as A.phillipsii), on the back side of the thighs small scales; vertebral white or yellowish longitudinal stripe; males in nuptial color red-brown underside, yellow or redish head, tail and limbs; tail scales (20 - 29) arranged in distinct whorls.
Similar to A. phillipsii in habitus. Enlarged, keeled and mucronate scales on the flanks generally few in number, widely dispersed or in weak and isolated transverse rows [in A. phillipsii such scales are closely compacted into a series of distinct transverse rows occupying a restricted area at mid-flank]; posterodorsal face of the thigh with a few large, keeled and mucronate scales irregularly arranged and intermingled with numerous smaller ones [in A. phillipsii this region of the femur has only large, regularly arranged scutes that are clearly separated from the small scales of the underside][According to Largen $ Spawls].

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia and Eritrea,probably Djibouti or Somaliland. In Ethiopia east of Harar (Deketa Valley), more frequent is in Eritrea (Afabet, Anseba Valley, Keren, Dekemhare, S of Asmara).

Behavior:
Poorly known agamids. Its inhabit rocky outcrops, big rocks, at altitudes 1500 - 2000 m asl. The natural history of this species unknown.

Description original:
Largen, M.J.; Spawls.: Lizards of Ethiopia (Reptilia Sauria): an annotated checklist, bibliography, gazetteer and identification. Tropical Zoology 19(1): 21-109

Common english name: Peters Ridgeback Agama

A.guentherpetersi - locality, Eritrea




genus  Agama,  Daudin, 1802


Agama finchi B烺ME et al. 2005

Agama finchi leucerythrolaema - Gambella, Ethiopia
Agama finchi Agama finchi Agama finchi Agama finchi
Agama finchi Agama finchi Agama finchi Agama finchi
Agama finchi Agama finchi Agama finchi Agama finchi

Short description:
Head triangular, not so broad like in genus Acanthocercus; tubular enlarged nasale situated on the canthus rostralis; occipital crest present; body scales homogenous, imbricate, keeled; tail long, covered by mucronate scales, not arranged in distinct whorls; males in nuptial color: head and occiput orange or yellow, deep blue, base of tail blue, in the middle yellow or orange, rear part of tail blue or black.
This is a medium-sized lizard of the genus Agama (total length of adult males up to 275 mm), which is characterized by a large gular fold, a reticulated throat and a bright nuptial coloration of adult males. A. finchi leucerythrolaema not only differs from the nominotypic form by its larger size, but additionally males of the new taxon are distinct as they possess a large gular fold, a reticulated colour pattern of the throat and body-like coloured forelimbs. Differences in pholidosis to the nominate form are only marginal but the new subspecies has a lower count of body scales (60 - 79), nom. 78 - 80 [According to B鐬me]
In Ethiopia ssp. Agama finchi leucerythrolaema B鐬me, Wagner, Freund, Modr, & Schmitz 2011.

Distribution:
Western Kenya, Uganda, south Sudan and west Ethiopia (Gambella - for example Baro Gambella Hotel).

Behavior:
This species associated with humid, mossaic sudan savanna, where occupies rocky-outcrops and large trees, but also fences and walls on towns. He lives in groups, one male and several females. They eat a variety of small arthropods, mostly insects, including wasps and bees. The females lay 5 -9 (SPAWLS) in my breeding 14 eggs, into holes, often under rocks or around the roots of trees. The incubation period 50-60 days, in my breeding 54 days at temperatures 24-28 蚓.

Description:
B鐬me, W.; Wagner, P.; Malonza, P.; L飆ters, S & K鐬ler, J.:A new species of the Agama agama group (Squamata: Agamidae) from Western Kenya, East Africa, with comments on Agama lionotus Boulenger 1896. Russ. J. Herpetol. 12 (2): 143-150 (83-90?)

Note:
In Ethiopia ssp. Agama finchi leucerythrolaema Wagner, Freund, Modr, Schmitz & B鐬me 2011

Common english name: Finchs agama

A.finchi - locality, Gambella, Ethiopia




Agama lionotus Boulenger, 1896

Agama lionotus - El Uaye, Ethiopia

Agama lionotus Agama lionotus Agama lionotus Agama lionotus
Agama lionotus Agama lionotus Agama lionotus Agama lionotus
Agama lionotus Agama lionotus Agama lionotus Agama lionotus

Short description:
Head big; nasale tubular, enlarged, situated on the canthus rostralis; body scales homogenous, keeled, imbricated; some scales on limbs enlarged, strongly keeled; short occipital crest present; tail covered by enlarged mucronate scales, not arranged in distinct whorls; nuptial color in males: Head orange or yellow, body and limbs blue, white vertebral stripe, tail complete blue and patterned by white circles.
Head rather strongly depressed, as long as broad. Nostril tubular, directed upwards and backwards, in the posterior part of the nasal, on the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales moderately large, smooth; two elongate scales on the middle of the snout; occipital enlarged; nine or ten upper labials ; sides of head, near the ear, and neck with groups of spines, the longest of which nearly equal the diameter of the tympanum; latter entirely exposed, a little larger than' the eye-opening. Throat much plicate; no gular pouch. Body strongly depressed; dorsal scales small, broader than long, rounded behind, very feebly and obtusely keeled, the keels converging towards the vertebral line; 50 scales on the vertebral line between the origin of the fore limbs and the the origin of the hind limbs; a small nuchal crest; no dorsal crest ; ventral scales small, smooth ; 65 scales round the middle of the body. The adpressed hind limb reaches the tympanum; tibia slightly longer than the skull; third finger a little longer than fourth; fourth toe a little longer than third. Tail compressed and serrated above, with large, keeled, and mucronate scales forming annuli. Male with a row of anal pores. Dark olive above, lighter on the vertebral line; some of the dorsal scales [ yellowish ; head yellow above, sides near the ear reddish, brick-red beneath; belly and lower surface of limbs bluish grey. [Boulenger]
Specimen from FMNH, Bisan River, Ethiopia: Midbody scale-rows 70-77, average 74; upper labials 9-11, average 10; lamellae beneath fourth toe 19-20; preanal pores of five males 10-13, average 11. Largest male measures 115 mm. from snout to anus, tail damaged. These five agamas are intermediate in position between A.a. agama and A.a.lionotus. From the former they differ in the much smoother dorsals which are only very faintly keeled; from lionotus they differ in the shorter nuchal crest. It is probable, however, that they should be referred to lionotus, the Bisan River being in extreme southern Ethiopia [LOVERIDGE].
Specimens from FMNH, Voi, Lukenya, Tsavo, Kenya: Midbody scale-rows 70-80 except for one Tsavo agama with 67, average 77; upper labials 9-13, average 10.3; lamellae beneath fourth toe 17-25, average 21; preanal pores of 28 males 11-17, average 13. Largest male measures 125 mm. from snout to anus, tail damaged [LOVERIDGE].

Distribution:
East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia. In Ethiopia in the south (Omo, Mago NP, Lake Stefanie, Luqa). Locally common.

Behavior:
Similarly like the previous species it lives in families and dwells on rocks, tree trunks, village walls, etc. I was observing a group in southern Ethiopia (Luqa), where they lived close to the kitchen of a local farming family. The animals were mostly seen on vertical fence posts and on a leaning tree trunk close by. In the morning, the male would leave the cover first, climbing high into the tree for sun exposure and to put on the territorial display. The females joined him up in the tree but the juveniles would stay close to ground feeding on ants. The adult animals fed mostly on bees from a beehive placed on that very tree. The locals ignored the lizards completely. The females lay up to 15 eggs. Not much else is known about the species but the data should be quite similar with the previous species mentioned.

Note:
In Ethiopia ssp. Agama lionotus lionotus BOULENGER 1896

Description original:
Boulenger, G. A.: Second Report on the Reptiles and Batrachians collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith during his Expedition to Lake Rudolf Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1896: 212-217

Described as Agama agama lionotus
Common english name: Kenya Rock Agama

A.lionotus - locality, El Uaye, West of Yabello, Ethiopia




Agama rueppelli VAILLANT, 1882

Agama rueppelli - Somaliland

Agama rueppelli Agama rueppelli Agama rueppelli Agama rueppelli
Agama rueppelli Agama rueppelli Agama rueppelli Agama rueppelli

Short description:
Head big, convex; nasale situated above the canthus rostralis, body scales homogenous, strongly keeled, imbricate, mucronate, erected; ear opening surrounded by tufts of spinose scales; tail shorter than snout-vent length, not arranged in distinct whorls; pronounced superciliary arcs; dorsal and occipital crest absent.
A medium-sized Agama with a maximum total length of 280 mm. Males (5888 mm SVL) smaller than females (76 88 mm SVL). Body depressed, hind limbs long. Tail more than 65% of total length, very broad at its base, tapering sharply. Gular pouch absent. Head convex, with the upper surface of the snout flat. Head scales smooth, equal to ventral scales, with the occipital scales variable in size (equal to other head scales to slightly enlarged). Nostril directed posterodorsally, completely visible from above, pierced in the posterior part of a large nasal scale, situated above the canthus rostralis. Usually with one to two scales between nasal and first supraciliary scales. Supraciliary scales smooth. Nuchal and dorsal crest absent. Ear opening only half the size of the eye, surrounded by tufts of spinose scales hiding the tympanum. Body scales large, homogeneous, keeled, mucronate, and erect, in 5464 scale rows around midbody. Vertebral scales 5966. Gular and ventral scales smooth, ventrals smaller than dorsal scales. Lamellae 1416 under the fourth toe, third and fifth toes nearly equal in length. Males with one row of 913 precloacal pores [Reptile Database].
Agama rueppelli septentrionalis: The distance from the tip of the snout to the anterior border of the ear is equal to the maximum width of the head. There are 3035 scales on the vertebral line, and some of the dorm-laterals may be enlarged (Lonnborg, 1911, p. 11). The number of scales in an oblique series of the standard length varies from 14 in half-grown specimens to 10 or 12 in adults. Colour as in the typical form [According to PARKER].
Agama rueppelli occidentalis: In juvenile specimens the head is similar to that of the preceding race, but in adults the distance from snout to ear. is longer than the maximum width. There are 3638 scales on the vertebral line and some dome-laterals may be slightly enlarged; the number of scales in an oblique series of the standard length is 19~20 in juveniles and 1517 in adults. The colour-pattern of immature specimens is similar to that of the typical form, but the adult is uniform light grey with a few small white dots on the sides [According to PARKER].

Distribution:
S Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia. In Ethiopia, the southern region around Lake Turkana and Stefanie and to the east Ogaden.

Behavior:
Poorly known species. It inhabits semi-arid areas, open shrubland, or stony semi-deserts. Does not live in large vertical rocks and do not find it there, where each occurs other types of large agamas. About they natural history is not much known. Its oviparous, breeding season associated with the end of the rainy season.

Note:
Currently we known three ssp. In Ethiopia occur Agama rueppelli rueppelli (Ogaden) and Agama rueppelli occidentalis (Turkana, Stefanie).

Description:
Vaillant, M.L.: Reptiles et Batraciens. in: R憝oil: Mission dans le pays Comalis, Faune et Flore. Faune et Flore des Pays Comalis, Afr. orient., p.

Described as Agama ruppelli
Common english name: Rppells Agama

A.rueppelli - locality, Somaliland





Agama persimilis PARKER, 1942

Agama persimilis

Agama persimilis Agama persimilis Agama persimilis Agama persimilis

Description:
Head big, convex; body scales homogenous, mucronate; occipital crest not present; ear opening surrounded by tufts of spinose scales; pronounced superciliary arcs; tail shorter than snout-vent length, in the first third narrowed; a broad brown bar, the full width of the supraocular region; an oval dark brown spot on each side of the nape;
Head convex, the upper surface of the snout flat; nostril tubular, directed upwards and backwards in the posterior part of the nasal above the canthus rostralis. Upper head scales moderately large, those on the supraocular region longitudinally elongate, with a blunt keel; occipital scale enlarged; ear superfacial, completely exposed, its diameter equal to that of the eyeopening; lower and posterior borders of the ear and sides of the neck with tufts of spines, the longest of which is about half the length of the eyeopening; these tufts of spines do not encroach upon the earopening. Two transverse gular folds, but no pouch. Body strongly depressed, with large, homogeneous, imbricate, keeled and mucronate scales, convergent towards the middle line except on the nuchal and occipital regions where they are reversed and point forwards; about 30 scales on the vertebral line between the anterior limits of the insertions of the fore and hind limbs; 57 scales round the middle of the body; 9 scales of an oblique series corresponding to a length equal to that from the tip of the snout to the anterior border of the ear. Tip of the fourth toe reaching the posterior corner of the eye; third finger a little longer than the fourth, and the fourth toe slightly longer than the third; tibia as long as the skull. Tail 2.4 times as long as the distance between the posterior gular fold and the vent, de- pressed and tapering very abruptly in its proximal sixth, slender and cylindrical posteriorly, Ventral scales smooth, much smaller than the dorsals. General colour rufus brown, with a strongly-marked geometrical colourpattern . Upper surface of the snout to the level of the anterior borders of the eyes pink; a broad brown bar, the full width of the supraocular region, across the head with an oblique extension from its posterior corners towards the ears; an oblique brown bar from beneath the eye to the anterior border of the ear; occiput pink mesially and a longitudinal stripe of the same colour extends down the midline of the back onto the tail; an oval dark brown spot on each side of the nape; three transversely elongate brown diamondshaped hlotches on the back, decreasing in size caudally, the last on the sacral region, each edged by a narrow light line and bisected by the mid-dorsal light line. An elongate, triangular, dorsolateral brown blotch on each side runs from the shoulder to the middle of the flank where its apex is narrowly separated from the apex of a similar blotch which extends backwards to the groin; flanks beneath these two markings occupied by a single large, triangular, brown blotch, the 3 lateral and dorso- lateral markings being all more or less distinctly edged With lighter. Tail with transverse dark bars, bisected mid-dorsally. Limbs with dark brown, light-edged markings. Lower surfaces uniform white. [Parker]

Distribution:
This species occur in northeastern Kenya, Somalia and in eastern and southeastern Ethiopia (Borana, Ogaden).

Behavior:
It inhabits semi-desert, shrubby and sandy savanna at lower altitudes. Fast and agile agama. It moves between the bushes, always near the shelter. Oviparous.

Holotype:
Holotype a female, number 1937. 12. 5. 64 in the British Museum, from 4550'E x 8衹 in the Haud; collected by Capt. R.H.R. Taylor on November 25th, 1934.

Description:
Parker, H. W.: The lizards of British Somaliland. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 91: 1101

Common english name: Somali Painted Agama




Agama hartmanni PETERS, 1869

Short description:
Head rather smaller; body scales homogenous, keeled; neck rather longer; moderately long limbs; ear opening smaller than the eye; occipital and vertebral crest absent; no tufts of spinose scales on the neck; dorsum brown-grey, longitudinal vertebral white band extend from neck to tail; two light stripes on side of the head extend to flanks;
A poorly known, medium-sized agamid lizard reaching a total length of 230 mm and a SVL up to 92 mm, with a depressed body and moderately long limbs. Gular pouch absent. Tail about 60% of total length. Head scales moderately large, smooth, with the occipital scale usually enlarged. Nostril nearly as large as the nasal scale, round, directed dorsally and laterally, pierced in the middle of the nasal scale, situated on the canthus rostralis. Usually one to two scales between nasal and first supraciliary scales, supraciliary scales smooth. Nuchal and dorsal crest absent. Ear opening smaller than the eye, superficial and completely exposed. No tufts of spinose scales near the ear or on the neck, a few single erect scales scattered near the ear opening. Body scales homogeneous, keeled, mucronate, and erect, with 7681 scale rows around midbody, ventral smaller than dorsal scales. Gular and ventral scales smooth. Males with 912 precloacal pores [according to Wagner, Bauer].

Distribution:
Nubia and the eastern part of northern Sudan from north to eastern Kordofan, western Eritrea. It is possible that occurs also in northwestern Ethiopia along the Sudan border. Type locality Dongola (Nubia, Sudan).

Note:
Poorly known species. Occupies very dry semi-desert areas and dry grassy savanna often on rocky outcrops.

Description original:
Peters, WILHELM C. H.: Eine Mittheilung ber neue Gattungen und Arten von Eidechsen. Monatsber. K霵igl. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, 1869: 57-66

Common english name: Hartmann's Agama




Agama cornii SCORTECCI, 1928


Short description:
La testa assai convessa; di forma subcordiforme, loccipitale fortemente slargato, poco pi piccolo dellapertura auricolare. Le narici si aprono nella parte posteriore di una scaglia debolmente convessa, situata sul canto rostrale e sono rivolte indietro ed in alto. Le labiali superiori sono 11, le inferiori 12. Le squame sopra orbitali sono piane, quelle del muso e della nuca, presentano un debole rilievo appuntito nella parte centrale. Le squame del dorso sono quasi omogenee, un po pi grandi quelle in prossimita della linea vertebrale, carenate, debolmente mucronate, embrioate. La carenatura converge verso la linea vertebrale Le squame fra lorigine degli arti sono 48, intorno alla met del corpo sono in 64 serie. Non vie traccia di cresta nucale e dorsale. Le squame ventrali sono piane, embricate, di poco pi piccole delle dorsali. Sul bordo anteriore dellapertura auricolare vi sono poche, piccolissime squame che si pretendono verso la membrana del timpano, simili ad una frangia. Dietro lorecchio vi, sono due gruppi di una o due minute spine, quasi invisibili ad occhio nudo. La fossetta omerale molto profonda, quasi una tasca. Vi una debole piega golare. Gli arti sono lunghi e sottili ricoperti da squame pi grandi delle dorsali, fortemente carenate, mucronate, assai embricate. Il terzo dito della mano di poco pi lungo del quarto; il quarto dito del piede pi lungo del terzo. Larto posteriore steso in avanti, raggiunge con lestremita del quarto dito il margine anteriore dell orbita [Original SCORTECCI].
Synonymized with A.hartmanii.

Distribution:
Om Hajer, Eritrea.

Note:
Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23

Description original:
Scortecci,G.: Rettili dell'Eritrea esistenti nelle Collezioni del Museo Civico de Milano. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali, e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano 67 (3-4): 290-339 [also cited as pp. 33-36 and as from 1928]


Agama doriae BOULENGER, 1885

A.doriae - topotype, Keren, Eritrea
A.doriae - Dawro region, Gojeb river bridge, 7.253255, 36.798948, Ethiopia
Agama doriae Agama doriae Agama doriae Agama doriae
Agama doriae Agama doriae Agama doriae Agama doriae
Agama doriae Agama doriae Agama doriae Agama doriae

Short description:
Head moderately depressed, triangular; body scales homogenous, keeled, mucronate; groups of small spines on sides of the head (is different among different populations); 74 - 84 midbody scale rows; occipital and vertebral crest present (its size and length differ in populations), sometimes extend to the tail;
Nostril tubular, directed outwards and backwards, pierced below the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales smooth or indistinctly keeled; occipital enlarged; eight to ten upper labials; sides of head and neck with groups of small spines, the largest of which measure hardly half the diameter of the tympanum, which is large and entirely exposed. A slight nuchal crest. Dorsal scales shortly mucronate, 45 to 50 on the vertebral line between the origin of the fore limbs and the origin of the hind limbs, and 74 to 84 round the middle of the body. Fourth toe scarcely longer than third, measuring the distance between the posterior border of the eye and the end of the snout or the anterior border of the nasal shield. Male with a row of anal pores. Yellowish or olive above, with usually feebly marked, small, dark marblings or reticulations; usually two blackish lines extend from the eye, one towards the nape, the other towards the ear; lower surfaces dirty yellowish, throat and breast often marbled with grey. From snout to vent 106 mm [According to BOULENGER].

Distribution:
Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea. In Ethiopia, western and northern part.

Behavior:
It occupies, like other agamas in this area, grassy and rocky habitats, bridges, stone walls nearby villages...etc. Insectivorous. Oviparous. Behavior of this species unknown.

Note:
Morphology of the species varies according to populations;

Description original:
Boulenger,G.A.: Ann. Mus. Genova (2) 2: 127

Common english name: Dorias Agama

A.doriae - locality, 30 km south of Bahir Dar, Gojam keflehager, Ethiopia



Agama lanzai WAGNER, LEACH, MAZUCH & B烺ME, 2013

A.lanzai - Somaliland
Agama lanzai Agama lanzai Agama lanzai Agama lanzai

Short description:
A moderately large Agama, morphologically similar to A. bottegi. Maximum length up to 348 mm. It can be identified by the following combination of characters: nasal scale round, smooth and tubular; nasal scale not in contact with the first canthus scale but separated by two smaller scales; neck crest short but consists of few distinctly high crest scales; ear hole surrounded by six tufts of spiny scales, with additional two tufts on the neck; vertebral and ventral scales smooth; lateral body scales keeled; dorsal tail scales keeled, ventral tail scales smooth; and males with one uncontinuous row of ten precloacal pores [accoring to Wagner et al.].

Distribution:
The endemic species of Somalia. Somaliland, Puntland.

Behavior:
The biological data unknown.

Description original:
Wagner, Philipp; Adam Leach; Tom Mazuch; Wolfgang B鐬me 2013. Additions to the lizard diversity of the Horn of Africa: Two new species in the Agama spinosa group. Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (3): 363387




Agama lucyae P.WAGNER AND A.BAUER 2011

Agama cf.lucyae - Dawro, 48 km NW of Sodo, Ethiopia
Agama lucyae Agama lucyae Agama lucyae Agama lucyae

Short description:
A small agama (body length of males up to 54 mm SVL, females to 59 mm SVL), with a short depressed head, smooth head scalation, a large occipital scale, homogeneous body scalation, and strongly keeled but non- or only slightly mucronate dorsal scales. The nasal scale is on the canthus rostralis. Ear hole surrounded by single short conical scales; few tufts of spinose scales behind the ear and on the lateral side of the neck are present, tympanum superficial. Short neck crest present in both sexes. Gular and ventral scales smooth. Tail not arranged in distinct whorls. 67 scale rows around midbody [according to Wagner, Bauer].

Note:
Poorly known species. It inhabits wooded savanna at altitude 1000 - 2000 m.

Distribution:
The endemic species of Ethiopia. Southwest Ethiopia, 58 km NW from town Sodo at altitude 1300 m (7.270856N, 37.378916E).

Description:
Philip Wagner and Aaron Bauer 2011: A new dwarf Agama (Sauria:Agamidae)from Ethiopia, BREVIORA, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambrige.Mass, 4.November 2011, Number 527.

A.cf.lucyae - locality, 48 km NW of Sodo, 6.904950, 37.415822, 1075 m above sea level, Gamo Gofa keflehager, Ethiopia




Agama bottegi BOULENGER, 1897


Agama bottegi Agama bottegi Agama bottegi Agama bottegi

Description:
Total length 355 mm. Head moderate, convex. Nostril tubular, directed upwards and backwards, pierced in the posterior part of a small nasal on the canthus rostralis. Upper head scales smooth; occipital enlarged; sides of head near the ear, and neck with groups of spines the longest of which measure two thirds the diameter of the ear-opening; latter large, entirely exposed, larger than the eye-opening; no regular gular pouch. Body scarcely depressed, covered above with large, strongly keeled, strongly mucronate, imbricate scales converging towards the vertebral line ; a strong nuchal crest, the lobes of which equal the diameter of the ear-opening, and a low crest extending along the back and tail; ventral scales keeled; 53 scales round the middle of the body. Limbs strong; tibia as long as the skull; third and fourth fingers equal; fourth toe very slightly longer than third, fifth not extending beyond first. Tail nearly twice as long as head and body, slightly compressed, keeled and serrated above, covered with strongly keeled scales which are larger than those on the body. A series of praeanal pores. Yellowish olive; throat greyish, gular fold orange; a round black blotch on each side of the neck in front of the shoulder. [Boulenger]

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. Type locality Lugh (Luuq) Southern Somalia, and adjascent part of Ethiopia.

Biology:
Poorly known species. Probably similar to A.spinosa.

Decsription original:
Boulenger, G. A.: Concluding report on the late Capt. Bottegos collection of reptiles and batrachians from Somaliland and British East Africa. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, (2) 18: 715-723 [1898]

Common english name: Somali agama




Agama smithii BOULENGER 1896 (inc. sed.)


Agama smithii Agama smithii Agama smithii Agama smithii

Short description:
Head convex, slightly longer than broad. Nostril tubular, directed upwards and backwards, in the posterior part of the nasal, on the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales moderately large and smooth; a slightly elongate scale on the snout; occipital enlarged; sides of head, near the ear, and neck with groups of spines, the longest of which measure twothirds the diameter of the tympanum; latter entirely exposed, larger than the eye/opening. 'Throat much plicate; no gular 'pouch. Body rather depressed; dorsal scales large, imbricate, keeled, and strongly mucronate, the keels converging towards the vertebral line; lateral scales smaller; 33 scales on thevertebral line between the origin of the fore linibs and the origin of the hind limbs; a short nuchal crest; no dorsal crest; ventral scales small, smooth ;. 58 scales round the middle of the body. The adpressed hind limb reaches the eye ; tibia longer than the skull ; third finger slightly longer than fourth; fourth toe slightly longer than third. Tail rounded; the scales as large as the dorsals and not verticillate. Pale olive-brown above, with traces of dark cross-bands; white beneath, throat with dusky longitudinal streaks. [Boulenger]
Note:
The status of A.smithi does not appear to be clear even though it seems to be different from other populations. Wagner et al. 2013 considered it as incertae sedis.
Agama smithii is known only from holotype.

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. Southern Somalia, Afmadoow.

Biology:
Natural history of the species unknow.




Agama somalica WAGNER, LEACH, MAZUCH & B烺ME, 2013

Agama somalica - male, Somaliland
Agama somalica Agama somalica Agama somalica Agama somalica

Short description:
A medium-sized Agama, morphologically similar to A. spinosa. Maximum length up to 278 mm. It can be identified by the following combination of characters: nasal scale round, smooth and tubular; nasal scale in contact with the first canthus scale; neck crest long, consists of a high number of distinctly short crest scales; ear hole surrounded by six tufts of spiny scales, with additional three tufts on the neck; vertebral scales smooth to feebly keeled, lateral scales keeled and ventral scales smooth; dorsal tail scales keeled, ventral tail scales smooth; and males with one continuous row of ten to twelve precloacal pores [According to Wagner et al.].

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. Western Somaliland and adjascent part of Ethiopia.

Biology:
Poorly known agamids. Behavior of this species unknown.




Agama spinosa GRAY, 1831

Agama spinosa - male, Eritrea
Agama spinosa Agama spinosa Agama spinosa Agama spinosa
Agama spinosa Agama spinosa Agama spinosa Agama spinosa

Short description:
Head small, rather depressed. Nostril tubular, directed upwards and backwards, pierced in the posterior part of a small nasal on the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales smooth ; generally no elongate scale on the snout; occipital enlarged; sides of head near the ear, and neck with groups of rather long spines, the largest of which measure more than half the diameter of the ear-opening; latter large, exposed, larger than the eye-opening. Throat much plicate; no regular gular pouch. Body not much depressed, covered above with rather large rhomboidal mucronate imbricate scales, with strong keels converging towards the vertebral line; these dorsal scales, smaller than the caudals, number forty to fifty from the origin of the fore limbs to the origin of the hind limbs (counting on the vertebral line); a distinct nuchal crest composed of rather long spines; no dorsal crest; ventral scales much smaller than the dorsals, smooth; sixty to seventy-four scales round the middle of the body. Limbs long and strong, digits elongate; tibia longer than the skull (to occiput): third and fourth fingers equal; fourth toe slightly longer than third, fifth extending beyond first. Tail twice and a half as long as the distance from gular fold to vent, roundish in the female, compressed and keeled above in the male, covered with large strongly keeled scales forming rather distinct annuli. Male with a row of anal pores. Olive-brown above; lower surfaces yellowish, with a well-marked black collar; the middle of the throat orange-red in the male [According to BOULENGER].
Medium-sized agama, reach up to 350 mm, lenght of tail 200 mm.
The head rather small, with pronounced superciliary arches. Scales on the top of the head smooth, occipitale larger, on the neck tufts of spiny scales. On dorsum large mucronate and strongly keeled scales.Vertebral scales smaller them on tail. The neck crest composed from long spiny scales. Ventral scales smooth and smaller than dorsalia. 60 - 74 scales on midbody rows. 7-12 precloacal pores in males. The body of displaiyng males cobalt-blue with a whitish vertebrate stripe and orange head. In normal condition is the coloration olive to bluish and red head. Females dorsum yellowish with orange patched and bands, head blue.

Distribution:
Wide ranging agama, whitch is known from Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and Ethiopia. In Ethiopia north-east.

Biology:
It inhabits semi-arid rocky shrubland areas, where prefers rocky outcrops and big rocks. Females lay up to 10 eggs into deep clayey crevices in the rock, or under rocks and big stones. They fed insects but eats also fruits and plants and an important part of the diet is ants.

Description original:
Gray, J. E.: A synopsis of the species of Class Reptilia. In: Griffith, E & E. Pidgeon: The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organisation by the Baron Cuvier with additional descriptions of all the species hither named, and of many before noticed [Vol. 9]. Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London: 481 + 110 pp.

Common english name: Grays Agama

Agama spinosa - locality, Fetu, Shewa keflehager, Ethiopia




Agama robecchii BOULENGER, 1892

Agama robecchii - Somaliland
Agama robecchii Agama robecchii Agama robecchii Agama robecchii
Agama robecchii Agama robecchii Agama robecchii Agama robecchii

Description:
Head moderately large, convex; body scales heterogenous, strongly keeled, serrated, intermixed with enlarged conical scales; tail short, shorter or as snout-vent length; anal pores in two rows; nuchal and dorsal crest not present;
Head short, thick, very convex. Nostril not tubular, directed upwards, pierced in the posterior part of a slightly swollen nasal just above the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales convex, smooth; six scales in a transverse series between the nasals, four between the orbits; occipital not enlarged; no spines on the hinder part of the head, no fringe above the ear; a few conical, erect scales below and behind the ear; ear-opening quite as large as the eye-opening. No gular pouch. Body short, much depressed, covered above with small, irregular, imbricate, keeled scales, largest in the middle, and intermixed with enlarged, strongly keeled or conical ones; limbs with uniform, strongly keeled scales; gular and ventral scales smooth or indistinctly keeled. Limbs moderate; the adpressed hind limb reaches between the ear and the eye; tibia as long as the skull; third and fourth fingers equal; fourth toe slightly longer than third, fifth not extending quite so far as first. Tail cylindrical, slender, nearly as long as head and body. A double row of anal pores. Greyish brown above, with traces of darker, light-edged spots; throat with bluish-grey longitudinal lines [BOULENGER]. A medium-sized robust agama, maximal lenght up to 300 mm. Type specimen TL 129 mm, the tail 62 mm, head 19 mm long, width 18 mm. Tail relatively short, as snout-vent lenght.

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. Somaliland and eastern Ethiopia (Aware), Ogaden..

Biology:
Poorly known species. It inhabit open semidesert, sparsely covered by xerofilous plants at altitude from 0 to 1600 m. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description original:
Boulenger, G.A.: On the reptiles collected by Sig. L. Brichetti Robecchi in Somaliland. Ann. Mus. St. nat. Genova (2) 12: 5-15

Common english name: Robecchi's Agama

Agama robecchii - locality, Somaliland


Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii MELNIKOV et.al

Agama chlodnickii - Meroe, Sudan
Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii
Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii

Short description:
A medium-sized agama, maximal lenght up to 230 mm rather less; males larger as females; head broad, short, convex; body depressed; tail long; limbs long and slender; the scales on the body small, imbricate, slightly keeled; occipitale not bigger than scales on top of the head; 6 unseparated well developed precloacal pores in males; ear hole larger than the eye.
Dorsum grey or brown with darker transverse bands, nuptial colored of females brown with red-brown patches on each sides and bluish head, nuptial colored males, dark blue head and bright blue body and tail.

Distribution:
P.chlodnicki occur on large area, from Lybia, Sudan and Egypt to western Eritrea.

Biology:
It inhabit rocky outcrops and sandy-stone plains in very dry habitats of the Sahara desert. Oviparous. They feed various of arthropods including Tenebrionids and Scorpions. In the northern regions can be wintering.

Description original:
Melnikov, Daniel; Jan mie這wski, Ekaterina Melnikova, Roman Nazarov, Natalia B. Ananjeva 2015.
Rednblues: A New Species of Pseudotrapelus (Agamidae, Sauria) from Sudan, Africa. Russ. J. Herpetol. 22 (1): 53-60

Pseudotrapelus chlodnickii - locality, Meroe, Nahr An Nil, Sudan





genus Xenagama,  Boulenger 1895



Xenagama batillifera (VAILLANT, 1882)

Xenagama batillifera - 17 km SE of Sheikh, Goolis Mts., Somaliland
Xenagama batillifera Xenagama batillifera Xenagama batillifera Xenagama batillifera

Short description:
Rather small agama with unmistakable morphology. Body depressed; limbs rather short and strong; tail short, discoidal; covered by large and keeled scales, with filiform tip. Scales on body heterogenous, small, keeled, intermixed with enlarged mucronated scales; on the thighs are scales very large; dorsolateral folds present, similar to the genus Acanthocercus; nostrils placed in front of "canthus rostralis".
A large Xenagama with males probably shorter than females. Head with the occipital scale not larger than other head scales and the nasal scale on the canthus rostralis. Ear hole surrounded in front and above by single short conical scales. No neck crest present. Body scalation heterogeneous, with smooth matrix scales, intermixed smooth to keeled enlarged scales and the annectens scale type present. Gular and ventral scales smooth. Tail shorter than the body and head, discoidal part developed, but not as strongly as in X. taylori, longer than broad, gradually merging into the terminal filament. Discoidal part of the tail arranged in whorls with one scale ring each. Filament not arranged in distinct whorls [according to WAGNER et al. 2013].
Snout more elongate; ear-opening large, round. Dorsal scales small, rhomboidal, subimbricate, intermixed with enlarged ones forming irregular longitudinal series. One or two series of large trihedral spines on the thigh, extending to the leg. Tail very short, discoid at the base, attenuate posteriorly, racket-shaped; its upper surface with large spinose scales, arranged on the upper dilated portion in eight or ten longitudinal and seven transverse series; the lower surface with small imbricate scales similar in shape and arrangement to the ventrals. Greyish above; females with black lines and spots or with large ocelli on the back; males with the tail yellow above and the throat and chest dark blue [in BOULENGER as Aporoscelis batilliferus].

Distribution:
The endemic species of Horn of Africa. Occurrence is known only from Somaliland and Ethiopia.

Biology:
It inhabit sandy loam bushy savannas and semi-desert,covered by sparse vegetation. They burrows holes under stones or most often around roots of shrubs. In the colder season seems slightly hibernate. They feed insects, mostly beetles, ants and termites. Oviparous.

Description:
Vaillant, M.L.: Reptiles et Batraciens. in: R憝oil: Mission dans le pays Comalis, Faune et Flore. Faune et Flore des Pays Comalis, Afr. orient., p. 10

Described as Uromastix batilliferus
Common english name: Vaillants Strange Agama

Xenagama batillifera - habitat, Somaliland




Xenagama taylori (PARKER, 1935)

Xenagama taylori
Xenagama taylori Xenagama taylori Xenagama taylori Xenagama taylori

Short description:
A small agama, morphologically similar to X.batillifera, but in smaller size, maximal lenght up to 100 mm; body slightly depressed; limbs short but strong; tail short and discoid at base, with a terminal filamentous portion; head in proportion to body large, broad and from above triangular; The scales on the body small, heterogenous, rather smooth, some of them conical and enlargered; scales on the thighs enlarged and mucronate.
Head longer than broad, curving down wards from the vertex to the tip of the snout; snout longer than the diameter of the orbit, with angular canthus rostralis; nostril in a single nasal on the canthus rostralis, circular and directed outward. Upper head-scales smooth; occipital not enlarged; scales behind the occiput very feebly keeled, but not mucronate or spinose. Earopening subcircular, entirely exposed, a little greater in diameter than the eye-opening and without projecting lobules anteriorly. Throat with a single transverse fold below; sides of the neck with a vertical fold in front of the shoulder, but without enlarged spines. Body strongly depressed, covered above with small smooth or very feebly keeled, oblique, imbricating scales, directed upwards and backwards; irregularly scattered over the back are slightly enlarged, more definitely keeled, scales. A slight dorso-lateral fold from the neck to the base of the tail on each side. Ventral scales smooth, imbricate, arranged in transverse series, about as large as the median dorsals; about 64 rows from the gular fold to the preanal pores; gular scales smooth, slightly smaller than the ventrals. Limbs short and powerful, with short, strong, compressed digits armed with long claws; scales on the fore-limb smooth and regular; anterior aspect of the thigh with enlarged imbricating scales, but the posterior aspect is covered with much smaller scales and a row of about five enlarged spinose scales separates the two; a group of similar keeled and spinose scales is situated on the tibia just below the knee. Tail very short, discoid anteriorly, with a terminal filamentous portion; discoid portion broader than long and flat above, with nine transverse rows of enlarged scales which have small spines anteriorly and mesially, are smooth or almost smooth postero-laterally, but at the edge of the tail are enlarged to form enormous spines; terminal caudal filament shorter than the discoid base. A treble row of ca]lose preanal scales. Reddish brown above, with obscure darker markings on the body and head. Chin, throat, and chest brilliant Prussian-blue, this colour also extending on to the loreal region, the anterior border of the ear, and the shoulders. Belly and lower surface of the tail white. Preanal pores orange [Parker].

Behavior:
It inhabits a sparsely shrubby areas with sandy soil in lower and warmer altitudes. The unfavorable periods of drought and cold survive in burrows. They feed small insects. Oviparous.

Distribution:
The endemic species of the Horn of Africa. Eastern part of Somalia (Somaliland, Puntland) and eastern Ethiopia (Ogaden) in lower altitudes.

Description original:
Parker, HAMPTON WILDMAN: Two new lizards from Somaliland. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 16: 525

Described as Agama (Xenagama) taylori
Common english name: Taylor's Strange Agama





Xenagama wilmsi P.Wagner,T.Mazuch & A.M.Bauer 2013

Xenagama wilmsi - Qebri Beyah, Harege keflehager, Ethiopia
Xenagama wilmsi Xenagama wilmsi Xenagama wilmsi Xenagama wilmsi

Short description:
A medium-sized agama, larger than two previous species; head big and broad; body slightly depressed; limbs relatively short, but strong. Scales on the body heterogenous, rather smooth, intermixed with numerous enlargered and mucronate scales; nasale on the canthus rostralis; tympanum surrounded in front and above by single short conical scales; tail short, broad, similar to X.batillifera or X.taylori, but not so discoid; gular and ventral scales smooth.
A large Xenagama (SVL of males up to 96.5 mm) with a short plump head, smooth to keeled head scalation and an occipital scale not larger than other head scales. The nasal scale is on the canthus rostralis. Ear hole surrounded in front and above by single short conical scales Tufts of elongated scales around the ear and or on the neck are lacking. Tympanum superficial. No neck crest present. Body scalation heterogeneous, with small matrix scales and intermixed keeled enlarged scales. Gular and ventral scales smooth. Tail shorter than the body and head, discoidal part not well developed, narrower than in X. batillifera or X. taylori, but broader than in X. zonura, twice as long as broad, gradually merging into the terminal filament. Discoidal part of the tail arranged in whorls with one scale ring each. Tail filament without distinct whorls [According to Wagner et al.].

Distribution:
The endemic species of Ethiopia. Eastern Ethiopia (Qebri Beyah, Jijiga, E of Dire Dawa). Probably west Somaliland or Djibouti.

Note:
This species occupies stony semi-desert plains in eastern Ethiopia. Oviparous. Poorly known species.

Original description:
PHILIPP WAGNER, TOMAS MAZUCH, AARON M. BAUER 2013: An extraordinary tail integrative review of the agamid genus Xenagama

Common english name: Wilm愀 Strange Agama

Xenagama wilmsi - Qebri Beyah, Harerge keflehager, Ethiopia





Xenagama zonura (BOULENGER, 1895)

Xenagama zonura - male, Robe, Bale keflehager, Ethiopia
Xenagama zonura Xenagama zonura Xenagama zonura Xenagama zonura
Xenagama zonura Xenagama zonura Xenagama zonura Xenagama zonura

Short description:
A medium-sized agama, largest from the genus, morphologically similar to Xenagama wilmsii. The head moderatelly large, triangular. Nasale on the canthus rostralis; ear opening surrounded by single short conical scales; head scales heterogenous, small, smooth or slightly keeled; occipitale small, no bigger than neighboring scales; 11 - 12 supralabials, 11 infralabials; tympanum largest than eye; body scalation heterogeneous, with small matrix spinose scales and intermixed with keeled and spinose enlarged scales; vertebral scales smooth to feebly keeled and larger than those on the flanks; tail covered with significant mucronate large scales in circular segments. The males with three rows of yellow preanal pores. Dorsum of males dark brown or black, scattered with bright spots; throat and belly in cobalt blue, blue color extends also to limbs. Female brown or dark grey with red-brown blotches in transverse rows.
Maximum lenght up to 200 mm.
Head much depressed, triangular. Nostril lateral, not tubular, below the canthus rostralis. Head-scales very unequal in size, smooth or obtusely keeled; occipital not enlarged; a few enlarged, conical scales below and behind the ear; 11 or 12 upper and 10 or 11 lower labials; tympanum entirely exposed, larger than the eye-opening. No gular pouch. Body much depressed; above with small irregular scales intermixed with irregularly scattered, enlarged, obtusely keeled ones; no crest; ventral scales small, smooth. The adpressed hind hmb reaches the ear; tibia shorter than the skull; fourth finger slightly longer than third; fourth toe very slightly longer than third, fifth extending beyond first. Tail a little longer than head and body, much depressed at the base; scales large, edged with spinules and with a small median spine, arranged in rings two of which form a well-marked segment except in the posterior third of the tail, where each segment comprises three transverse series above and two below. Male with three transverse series of anal pores; Dark olive above, with some lighter dots and black marblings; blue beneath, throat and breast with a rather indistinct blackish network; anal pores yellow [original BOULENGER 1895].
A large Xenagama lizard (SVL of males up to 84.5 mm) with a triangular depressed head and the nasal scale keeled and on the canthus rostralis. Ear hole surrounded by single short conical scales, while tufts of elongated scales are lacking. Tympanum superficial. No neck crest present. Body scalation heterogeneous, with small matrix spinose scales and intermixed with keeled and spinose enlarged scales. Vertebral scales smooth to feebly keeled and larger than those on the flanks. Gular and ventral scales smooth. Tail slightly longer than the body and head, discoidal part not developed, but base of the tail distinctly broad. Tail base arranged in whorls with one scale ring each [from WAGNER et al. 2013].

Distribution:
The endemic species of Ethiopia. They occurs in central Ethiopia around north part of Bale Mountains, east to Sof Omar but only in highest altitudes (1800 - 2500 m). It is also known from neighborhood of Harrar and Asebe Teferi.

Behavior:
It inhabits stony areas and rocky outcrops at altitudes from 1500 to 2500 m. They occupies also surroundings of roads. The females lays around 7 eggs.

Description original:
Boulenger, G.A. 1895. An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in western Somaliland and the Galla Country. Proc. zool. Soc. London 1895: 530-540

Described as Agama zonura
Common english name: Ethiopian Ridgeback Agama

Xenagama zonura - E of Robe, Bale keflehager, Ethiopia




Uromastyx ocellata LICHTENSTEIN, 1823


Uromastyx ocellata Uromastyx ocellata Uromastyx ocellata Uromastyx ocellata

Short description:
A medium-sized agamid lizard, relatively robust, on unique appearance. Head big, broad, from above oval, rostral part short. Significant browridges. Scales on the head small, smaller than in other Agamas. The limbs strong, tail shorter than snout-vent lenght, slightly depressed, covered with thorny scales which are arrangement in annuli, whose numbers is 22 - 29. Midbody scale rows 189 - 256. Scales on the body homogenous, smooth, very small and granulose. On the hind limbs scales enlarged and spiny. Coloration variable. May be reddish, green-brown, red-brick, typical is several transverse rows of ocelli on the dorsum. Belly yellowish.
Uromastyx ocellatus. N.
Ur. dorso ocellato, ocellis magnis in fasciis: transversis positis,
cauda annulata supra spinosa, infra non spinosa scutis magnis
truncatis. Habitus et magnitudo
Ur. spinipedis. Merr.
1'. Nubia
[LICHTENSTEIN in original].

Distribution:
Southeast Egypt, Nubia and eastern Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and eastern Ethiopia.V border region with Somalia. In Ethiopia, the border region with Somalia and probably with Eritrea.

Behavior:
It inhabit hot, arid habitats, and is most commonly found in mountainous, rocky deserts with sparse vegetation. In these areas, it generally lives in wadis with Acacia trees. The diet of the Uromastyx consists mainly of plants, marginaly also arthropods, especially in youth. The breeding biology is not well known. The females lay eggs in clutches of 8 to 20.

Description original:
Lichtenstein, M. HINRICH C.: Verzeichniss der Doubletten des zoologischen Museums der K霵igl. Universit酹 zu Berlin nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von S酳gethieren, V鐷eln, Amphibien und Fischen. K霵igl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss./ T. Trautwein, Berlin. x, 118 pages

Described as Uromastyx ocellatus
Common english name: Ocellated Spinytail

Uromastyx ocellata - locality, Gazzali, Ash Shamaliyah, North Sudan





Uromastyx princeps OSHAUGHNESSY, 1880

Uromastyx princeps

Uromastyx princeps Uromastyx princeps Uromastyx princeps Uromastyx princeps

Description:
Head short and broad, covered above with numerous small irregular-shaped scales, much as in U.acanthinurus and other species; the scales on the muzzle and the two central series between the supraorbital regions are, however, larger, and there are two large plates, a polygonal posterior and a narrow oblique anterior one, between the nasal plate and the upper anterior part of the orbital region on each side; also a series of very large infraorbital plates; the posterior upper labials but slightly enlarged or projecting downwards. Rostral broad, double the size of the mental the rest of the scales of the head offering no points of difference from U.acanthinurus or U.microlepis (Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis), excepting that those on the temporal region are flat and smooth instead of being convex. Sides of the neck with some puckers, but without any larger pointed scales or tubercles. Neck, back, and sides covered uniformly with very small, convex, rounded or feebly pointed scales; the scales on the lower surface of the body are much larger, rhomboidal, and arranged in transverse series. Scales on the fore limb large, smooth, becoming still larger near the carpal region; no tubercular scales. On the upper and anterior part of the thigh the scales are large, smooth and regular, not spinose, a few large conical scales occurring behind and continuing at the knee and down the front of the tarsus, the inner surface of which is covered with rather large plain scales, similar to but larger than those of the foot; the other parts of the hind limb are covered with very small scales. No femoral or praeanal pores in the specimen examined. The tail is broad, flattened, and much shorter than in the other species of Uromastyx, resembling in shape the tail of the genus of Skinks named Silubosaurus (meant as Egernia) by Gray. Its upper surface is covered with very large spinose shields, projecting in a long curved point in the four middle shields of each of the 10 or 11 transverse rows, and forming a still larger series of more strongly curved or hooked appendages on each side of the tail; thus there are six longitudinal series of Spines on the tail, the two central ones being much smaller, while the outer ones are of extraordinary size and appearance. The inferior surface of the tail is occupied by smooth elongate scales in about 17 transverse rows, a very large, flat, unguicular plate at the commencement of each alternate row accompanying each of the large lateral hooks just described, but belonging to the lower surface of the tail. As regards the teeth, this species exhibits the arrangement characteristic of the Lizards of this group. There are two very distinct front teeth in each jaw, then a cutting-edge, followed by a series of lateral teeth. The general colour of the body is olive-grey, with brownish tints, and minute darker spots scattered over the back; hind limbs reddish on their outer surfaces; tail deep red; chin variegated with dark marhings [O巽haughnessy].

Distribution:
The endemic species of Somalia. Eastern Somalia (Puntland and the northern and central parts of southern Somalia), extends into eastern Somaliland. In Ethiopia eastern and probably south Ogaden.

Description original:
O'Shaughnessy,A.W.E.: Description of a new Species of Uromastix. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1880: 445-446

Common english name: Princely Spiny-tailed Lizard




Uromastyx macfadyeni (PARKER, 1932)

Uromastyx macfadyeni

Uromastyx macfadyeni Uromastyx macfadyeni Uromastyx macfadyeni Uromastyx macfadyeni

Short description:
A medium-sized lizard. Total lenght 220 mm. The body scales small and smooth. Midbody scale rows 157 - 182, vantral scales large, in 78 - 93 transverse rows. The scales front of edge of ear hole enlarged. Forelimbs and the sides of the body without enlarged scales. The upper part of the thighs covered with scattered, enlarged, conical scales. The tail rather flattened, covered with thorny scales which are arrangement in annuli, whose numbers is 22 - 23. On the sides of the tail scales significantly enlarged, and very thorny. 11 to 16 femoral pores. The dorsum gray, or grey-brown, yellow, with dark marbling, and with scattered blue spots. The throat and lower part of head blue, ventral part of the body cream, with darker markings.
Ear with 45 enlarged conical scales on its anterior border. Body-scales smooth, flat, subimbricate, about 155 round the middle of the body (including ventrals); ventrals large, about 80 in a straight line between gular fold and preanal pores; no enlarged tubercles on the fore-limb or flanks ; upper surface of thigh and outer surface of tibia with some enlarged conical tubercles. Tail depressed, 2 rows of scales on the lower surface in each whorl at the middle, 3 anteriorly and l posteriorly; upper caudals about once and a half as long as broad; median 2 rows with very short spines, abruptly differentiated from the next 3 scales on each side (dorm-laterals), which have very long spines, the longest equal to the diameter of the eye-opening; 18 scales in the tenth annulus. Hind-limb not quite reaching the axilla; 9 femoral and 45 preanal pores on each side. Colour in spirit: Pale straw-colour above; a series of blue transverse bars on the dorso-lateral region; these bars break up on the sides of the neck (where they anastomose) and on the flanks; mid-line of back posteriorly with a series of round blue spots corresponding to the dorsodateral bars; remainder of ground colour with larger and smaller dark brown circles and suhquadrangular figures forming a close reticulum. Head and limbs tinged with blue; a dark streak from beneath the nostril through the eye. Tail uniform pale brownish. Lower surfaces yellowish; chin, throat, and. chest heavily spotted with blue; belly with a few scattered blue spots. Snout to vent 117 mm.; tail 95 mm. Paratype ♂ near Berbera, collected by G. W. Bury, Esq.; B.M. no.1905.10.30.31.
♂ & yg. Dagah Shabell (24 miles SE.of Berbera), 1700 ft.; collected by Dr. W. A. Macfadyen; B.M. nos. 1931.8.1.14ll42. These examples show the following differences from the holotype: Scales at mid-body 165170 ; ventrals from gular fold to preanal pores 8389; scales in 10th caudal annulus 1820 ; femoral pores 810 ; preanal pores 34. The largest specimen (from Dagah Shabell) measures 122 mm. from snout to vent, with a tail of 103 mm., the juvenile has the umbilical scar still visible, and measures 52 mm. from snout to vent, with a tail of 41 mm. The chin and throat of the largest male are completely blue; the juvenile is pale brown, with 5 pairs of irregular transversely oval black spots on the back and a dark streak from below the nostril through the eye, but the dorsal figuring of circles, so marked in adults, is scarcely indicated. The species is allied to U.ornatus, U.ocellatus, and U.acanthinurus, but differs from all of them in the abrupt differentiation of the dorso-lateral caudal scales and the length of the spines of these scales; in these species the longest spines seldom exceed half the length of the eye-opening. It further differs from ocele in the presence of auricular lobules and smaller scales (155170 at midbody vice 260), from ornatus in the double row of scales beneath each caudal annulus and from acanthinurus in its much smaller size, different colour, and fever caudal scales to an annulus. Somali name "Asharbudi Guban" [Parker].

Distribution:
The endemic species of Somalia. Somaliland.

Description original.:
Parker,H.W.: Two collections af amphibians and reptiles from British Somaliland. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1932: 335-367

Described as Uromastix macfadyeni
Common english name: Macfadyens Mastigure
























































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