Herpetology of Ethiopia and Eritrea


Bufonidae Gray, 1825



Altiphrynoides malcolmi (Grandison, 1978)

Short descriprion:
A. malcolmi has a variable body coloration with its dorsum ranging from grey, green-grey, brown-grey, to black. Its body pattern consists of dark spots on three semi-parallel light longitudinal stripes that can range in color from pale green, pale to bright pink, to reddish. The center stripe runs along the vertebrae but does not extend past the cervical vertebrate; the other two stripes are located between the paravertebral ridge and the flanks. The spots are evenly distributed on the dorsum. The flanks are dark ranging from grey to almost black and are often bordered with a white line on the dorsal side. The ventrum is a dirty white to cream and has highly variable patterning.

Distribution:
Altiphrynoides malcolmi is endemic to the highlands of the Bale Mountains in Bale Province, Ethiopia at 3200 - 4000 m above sea level. The habitat ranges from Schefflera-Hagenia-Hypericum forest to Afro-alpine moorland. In low elevations, the species is found in grassy vegetation around small streams (Largen 2001).

Note:
The eggs are typically laid at the base of herbaceous vegetation on a vertical ridge, but in some instances can be found beneath logs and leaves. These areas are usually close to, but not in small pools of water. After depositing her eggs, the female leaves the site while the successful male stays with the egg mass to attract more mates. He along, with the other males, continues to breed with females that are attracted by their calls. These females deposit their eggs with the first female’s egg mass, creating a communal mass of eggs, sometimes constituting clutches from twenty females. After all of the females have laid their eggs, the communal egg masses are abandoned by all parents. They prey small snails.

Description original:
Grandison, A. G. C. 1978. The occurrence of Nectophrynoides (Anura, Bufonidae) in Ethiopia. A new concept of the genus with a description of a new species. Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Nuova Serie, Supplemento. Firenze 11: 119-172.

Described as Nectophrynoides malcolmi

Common english name: Ethiopian Mountain Toad





Altiphrynoides osgoodi (Loveridge, 1932)

Description:
Crown without bony ridges; snout rounded with welldeveloped, though rounded, canthus rostralis; the distance between the nostril and the front edge of the lip is shorter than the distance between the nostril and the anterior border of the orbit; interorbital space broader than an upper eyelid, flat; tympanum hidden. Fingers long, first considerably shorter than the second; a large, flat, metacarpal tubercle; toes long, without web, with simple subarticular tubercles, a flat, circular inner metatarsal tubercle; no outer, or only the suggestion of an outer metatarsal tubercle; no tarsal fold; the inner metatarsal tubercle of the adpressed hind limb marks the end of the snout; the tibio-tarsal articulation of the adpressed hind limb fails to reach the orbit. Skin above covered with flattened warts which are absent on the snout; parotoid glands absent or only faintly indicated. Below granular ; soles of the feet with a few, scattered, smooth tubercles. Coloration - Above, uniformly purplish brown; a dark brown stripe commences on the snout, passes over the nostril and orbit, broadens on the temporal region and then continues over the forearm to the flank where it breaks up into dusky patches ; the upper edge of this line is sharply distinct from the coloring of the upper surface. Below, uniformly white [according to LOVERIDGE].

Distribution:
This species is endemic to the mountains of south central Ethiopia (Arsi, Balé, Sidamo and Gamo Gofa Provinces) at 1,950-3,520 m east from Rift Valley.

Note:
Species that linked to mountain forests or open wetlands. The reproduction places is a occasional or permanent watter pools , such as various puddles and small ponds.
The diet includes small snails, and slugs or insects.

Description original:
Loveridge, A. 1932. Eight new toads of the genus Bufo from East and Central Africa. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 8: 43-54.

Described as Bufo osgoodi

Common english name: Osgood's Ethiopian Toad






















































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