Herpetology of Ethiopia and Eritrea


Bufonidae Gray, 1825


Characters shared within the family are:
1) Bidder's organ present; 2) teeth absent from upper and lower jaws; 3) constrictor posterior muscle absent; 4) depressor mandibulae muscle originating solely from the squamosal; 5) inguinal fat bodies present; 6) skull highly ossified (usually skin is ossified to the skull).[Amphibiaweb.com]

Mertensophryne lughensis (Loveridge, 1932)

Short description:
Tympanum distinct; toes except the fourth, two-thirds webbed (instead of a third or at most, half webbed ); tip of the fourth toe of the adpressed hind limb marks the anterior border of the eye (end of snout in Kibwezi toad, nostril in Matagoi-Lugh specimen); two large, smooth, flat metatarsal tubercles (instead of two small and rounded ones ); an inner and an outer metacarpal tubercle (instead of a single large one). It agrees with the Matagoi-Lugh taitanus in having the belly speckled (though somewhat differently) with black, but in Peter's type as well as the Kibwezi specimen this region is heavily marbled with black. Coloration: Above, very pale yellowish-gray flecked with black specks, each of the latter having a lighter center, the whole resulting in a pepperand- salt effect. Below, cream colored, the throat and forward part of the chest immaculate, the middle of the belly specked with black [LOVERIDGE].
A medium-sized toad, witch reaching a length of about 60 mm. The dorsum is creamisch, pale reddish-brown or greenish-yellow, with yellowish or redish blotches and spots. The belly is white or cream. The parotoid glands are rather round and slightly noticeable.

Distribution:
Arid lowlands from Somalia through eastern and southern Ethiopia to South Sudan and lowland Kenya. It is probable that also occurs in northeastern Uganda.

Biology:
The biology of P.lughensis is poorly known. It lives in very dry savannah where it apparently breeds in temporarily flooded hollows, including roadside ditches, immediately after the beginning of the rains. Nocturnal activity.

Description original:
Loveridge, A. 1932. Eight new toads of the genus Bufo from East and Central Africa. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 8: 43-54.

Described as Bufo lughensis

Common english name: Lugh Toad




Sclerophrys pentoni (Anderson, 1893)

Short description:
The front of the snout of the adult is covered with a horny induration extending from the nostrils to the anterior angle of the eye, and backwards and between the eyes to the commencement of the interorbital space, but more or less traversed in the mesial line by a longitudinal furrow. This protection to the snout, the presence of two metatarsal tubercles, the innermost of which is a powerful shovel-shaped struCture, and the existence of the tarsal tubercle, are features which would seem to indicate that this is a burrowing toad. The tympanum is vertically oval, and its transverse diameter equals about one half of the diameter of the eye from canthus to canthus. The breadth of the upper eyelid equals the interorbital space. The paratoid is large and somewhat oval in shape. The limbs are rather short and stout, and the hind limb when laid forwards has the tarso-metatarsal joint reaching the ear. The toes are moderately webbed. The general colour in alcohol is olive-grey with a yellowish tinge, irregularly covered with more or less confuent dark markings. A darkish band across each eyelid. The dorsal glandules may be either reddish or yellowish.
Medium-sized toad with a short, blunt head and with the unmistakable shape of the body. Tarsal tubercles are present. The inner metatarsal tubercle is large and flanged. The hind legs short and robust. Males reach a length of 54-74 mm (SVL), female 58 to 95 mm. Index of distances of eyes and tip of the nose to the width of the head is only 0.24. The eyes big, with horizontal pupil. A large high-oval tympanum with a diameter equal to that of the eye is edged by a broad bulging border. The parotid glands are very large, prominent, broadened caudad and almost smooth. Warts without horny tips [ANDERSON]. The dorsum varies from a pale yellow brown to a dark olive brown.

Distribution:
Sub-Saharan region from the Gambia and Mauritania eastward to the Red Sea. Coast of Sudan, Eritrea and Djibouti; some isolated areas in the Sahara.
Possible occurrence in eastern Ethiopia and northern Somalia (Somaliland).

Biology:
It inhabits arid, partly sandy savannas and semi-deserts, but also agricultural land in Sahel. They breeds in seasonal ponds, often without any vegetation. In dry season are buried deep in the ground. The tadpoles are black. They feed various arthropods, mainly termites, beetles, ants and other ground insect.

Description original:
Anderson, J. 1893. On a new species of Zamenis and a new species of Bufo from Egypt. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 6, 12: 439-440.

Common english name: Penton's Toad




Sclerophrys dodsoni (Boulenger, 1895)


Short description:
Crown without bony ridges ; snout short, blunt ; interorbital space as broad as the upper eyelid; tympanum very distinct, two thirds the diameter of the eye. Pirst finger considerably longer than second; toes one-third webbed, with single subarticiJar tubercles ; two moderate metatarsal tubercles; a tarsal fold. The tarso-metatarsal articulation reaches the anterior border of the eye. Upper parts with numerous flat, distinctly porous warts ; parotoids oval, flat, as long as their distance from the anterior border of the orbit. Pale olive above, with small darker spots ; a dark canthal streak and a dark vertical bar below the eye; lower parts white. Male with an internal subgular vocal sac. From snout to vent 53 mm [According to BOULENGER].
A medium-sized toad. The largest recorded specimen is a female with a length of 59 mm. It has a short and rounded snout and prominent, smooth, oval parotoid glands. The second toe is shorter than the first. Hind legs are short. A tarsal ridge is present. While the dorsum has scattered, rounded, flattened porous warts, the venter is slightly granular. The dorsum is olive gray with small black and light orange spots. Distinctive dark spots are also present below and slightly anterior to each eye. Limbs have dark bands, while ventral sides are primarily whitish. The male subgular sac is white. Juveniles are more brightly colored than their adult counterparts (Baha el Din 2006).
See picture

Distribution:
It occurs only in northeastern Africa. It is known mainly from Djibouti and northern and central Somalia. It is common in Port Sudan in eastern Ethiopia and Eritrea. Its also extended very rare in southeastern Egypt, near Jebel Elba (Baha el Din 2006).

Biology:
It is a species of extremely arid localities, and is often found far from the nearest permanent water. It breeds in temporary pools in desert and semi-desert savannah, gheltas (permanent pools at the foot of cliffs or in the mouth of caves) and in water in caves. It can be found deep in burrows during droughts, it emerges from these to breed after rains

Description original:
Boulenger, G. A. 1895. An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in western Somali-land and the Galla Country. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895: 530-540.

Our records:
Awash NP, Kerejoo lodge (Trailin, Mazuch), FilFil Eritrea (Mazuch)

Described as Bufo dodsoni

Common english name: Dodson's Toad

Sclerophrys dodsoni - habitat, Awash NP, Kerejoo lodge, Ethiopia



Sclerophrys asmarae (Tandy et al. 1982)


Description:
Tympanum distinct, its horizontal diameter approximately 0.15 the width of the head, 50% that of the eye; a tarsal fold; gular skin of adult males darker than venter, in grayish brown with cream granulation; first finger longer than second; toes extensively webbed (3-3 1/3 phalanges of the fourth toe free of webbing on both inner and outer margins; warts on posterior surface of forearm not fused into a glandular ridge; cornified spinules extensively developed. Snout obtusely rounded; nostrils closer to tip of snout than to eye; canthus rostralis moderately sharp; horizontal diameter of the eye about equal to length of snout. Parotoid glands moderately well defined, elongate and slightly reniform, narrowly separated from the eye, the anterior edges lying between the anterior and posterior borders of the tympanum. First finger longer than second, second a little longer than fourth; first three fingers densely melanized with nuptial asperities; fingers with distinct marginal folds; subarticular tubercles large, most partially divided; palm with numerous tubercles lacking spinules; inner metacarpal tubercle well developed but smaller than outer metacarpal tubercle and almost fully covered with melanized nuptial asperities. A series of distinct unfused warts on the posterior surface of the forearm. Toes extensively webbed; toe IV with three phalanges free on the inner margin; all toes with a margin of web extending almost to the tips; webbing without spinules; subarticular tubercles similar in size to those of the fingers and some with a few small non-melanized spines; tubercles of soles smaller than those of palms; inner and outer metatarsal tubercles prominent and apparently well-suited for burrowing, the inner larger and more raised than the outer. Tarsal fold well developed, blunt edged, approximately 2/3 the length of the tarsus. Dorsum with numerous conical and rounded warts, each with one or more large spinules and some smaller spinules; spinules extending over entire dorsum, including surfaces of parotoid glands, but less numerous anterior to eyes. Venter coarsely granular but lacking spinules. Warts at rictus partially fused and covered with numerous small spinules [according to TANDY el.al].

Distribution:
This species occurs in the highlands of Ethiopia (on both sides of the Rift Valley) and Eritrea.

Biology:
It is a species of montane grassland. There is some suggestion that the species might extend into arid savannah at lower elevations, but this requires confirmation. It breeds in permanent and probably also temporary pools (including in artificially maintained livestock-watering sites) in montane grassland.

Description:
Tandy, M., J. P. Bogart, M. J. Largen, and D. J. Feener . 1982. A tetraploid species of Bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) from Ethiopia. Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Nuova Serie, Supplemento. Firenze 17: 1-79

Described as Bufo asmarae

Our records:
FilFil, Eritrea (Mazuch); Haramaya lake, Harar, Ethiopia (Mazuch, Trailin, Novak);

Common english name: Asmara Toad

Sclerophrys asmarae - locality, Haramaya lake, Harerge keflehager, Ethiopia



Sclerophrys gutturalis (Power, 1927)

Sclerophrys gutturalis - Nairobi, Kenya
Sclerophrys gutturalis - Nairobi, Kenya

Short description:
A larger toad species. Parotoid glands rather smooth without big "warts". Color variable. Dorsum light brown, cream, or dark grey or black with several pairs fleck. On head paler inter-parietal bar.
The guttural toad is a large species with males growing to a snout-to-vent length of up to 90 mm (3.5 in) and females 120 mm. The upper surface is buffish brown with variable irregular dark brown markings. There are two pairs of brown spots between the eyes making a cross-like mark, and there is often a pale stripe down the spine. The arms are edged by distinctive white tubercles and there is a red patch on the back of the thighs. The underparts are pale and granular and the male has a dark throat. The parotid glands are prominent and the toes are only slightly webbed.

Distribution:
This species occurs from extreme southern Somalia, central and southern Kenya, though Tanzania, southern Democratic Republic of Congo, and Angola, south to northern Namibia, northern central and eastern South Africa. The boundary between this species and Bufo regularis in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania is poorly understood, and the map should be regarded as provisional. Records from southeastern Uganda might refer to Bufo regularis and therefore require confirmation.
Two findings come from southern Ethiopia (MCZ: HERPAMPH: A-51612 and MCZ: HERPAMPH: A-51611) 5°N - 39°E. It may be a confusion with S.regularis.

Biology:
It is a very adaptable species occurring in a wide variety of savannahs, grassland, thickets, and agricultural land. It is able to breed in more or less permanent and semi-permanent standing water. It breeds frequently in garden pools. Females lay up to 25,000 eggs. Males call throughout the year but the main period for breeding is October and November. The sound is a guttural "snore" repeated at intervals of about three seconds. The males call from the surface of permanent water bodies and large congregations can take place, making a "chorus". The eggs are laid in double strings which may be wound around submerged vegetation. The tadpoles develop for about 75 days before undergoing metamorphosis. They may be so numerous leaving the ponds as to carpet the ground and many are eaten by predators.

Description original:
Power, J. H. 1927. On the herpetological fauna of the Lobatsi-Linokana area. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 14: 405-422.

Described as Bufo regularis gutturalis

Common english name: Guttural Toad




Sclerophrys blanfordii (Boulenger, 1882)


Short description:
Head rather large, without bony ridges: snout short, rounded, with indistinct canthus rostralis; interorbital space as broad as the upper eyelid, flat: tympanum distinct, vertically oval, not quit half the diameter of the eye. Fingers moderate, first extending very slightly beyond second; toes moderate, half webbed, with simple subarticular tubercles; two small metatarsal tubercles; a tarsal fold. The hind limb being carried forwards along the body, the tarso-metatarsal: articulation reaches the centre of the eye in the female, in front of the eye in the male. Skin covered with small warts; parotoids none. Olive abow, indistinctly marbled with darker; a dark line from the tip of the snout, through the nostril to the eye; a few huge spots on the sides of the head; beneath immaculate. Male with a subgular vocal sac. From snout to vent 43 mm [According to BOULENGER].
A small species. The males reach lenght up to 50 mm, females 55 mm. The parotoid glands are small and smooth. The dorsum grey, brown or olive-green, sometimes with a few darker brown or reddish blotches. The belly is white or cream. The eyes goldish.

Distribution:
The endemic species of Horn of Africa. It occurs in Eritrea, Djibouti and northern Somalia,    It is also known from several localities in northeastern and eastern Ethiopia (Dire Dawa).

Biology:
It inhabits very dry and hot areas, where it resident near of permanent water resources. It was never found farther away from the water. Usually be can see they in the water, where they are hidden in vegetation, or under rocks on the banks. Very well and steadily swim. In the same waters will also breed.

Description original:
Boulenger, G. A. 1882. Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the Collection of the British Museum. Second Edition. London: Taylor and Francis.
Described as Bufo blanfordii

Our records:
Eritrea (Mazuch, Novak); Dire Dawa, Ethiopia(Mazuch);

Common english name: Blanford's Toad

Sclerophrys blanfordii - locality, 20 km NE of Dire Dawa, Harerge keflehager, Ethiopia



Sclerophrys garmani (Meek, 1897)


Short description:
A large toad, females reach a size of up to 100 mm. Parotoid glands are clearly visible, large, smooth with visible openings. Coloration rather contrasting, parotoid glands colored mostly yellow, orange...unlike the other species which living in the area, they have on the body more bright colors (orange, yellow or red). Belly white, vocal sac of males black pigmented. Warts on the body of medium size, without tips.
Head without bony ridges; snout short, rather pointed; interorbital space flat, as broad as the upper eyelid; tympanum rather distinct, vertically oval, its vertical diameter about i^ in diameter of the orbit. Parotids large, prominent, width about one-half length. Second finger much shorter than the first, tips of the latter reaching beyond the tips of the former; toes about one-half webbed; fingers and toes with subarticular tubercles; two metatarsal and two larger metacarpal tubercles. Along narrow gland on the underside of forearm. A prominent inner tarsal fold. The leg carried forward along the side of the body, the metatarsal tubercles reaches the posterior margin of the orbit. Upper parts covered with small irregular (in size) warts, no evident poores; lower part with smaller, more regular and close set warts, giving a granular appearance. Tongue elliptical, its width 1,5 in its length. Color above brownish. Upper surface of head from middle of orbits to nostrils, brownish gray; this color continues in a narrow band downward on end of snout. The smaller specimen has three pairs of faint burnt-like spots with narrow black margins on the back, the first between hinder margins of orbit, the second between posterior ends of parotids, and the third on the middle of the back; these spots are about the size of the tympanum. Legs and arms with a few cross bars, under parts uniform light colored. [Meek]

Distribution:
This species occurs from Ethiopia and Somalia south to northern parts of South Africa and the northern and eastern parts of Botswana. Southern and northern population is isolated. It is likely that the northeastern African populations (from northern Tanzania northwards) and the southern African populations (from Zambia southwards) belong to separate species, with true Sclerophrys garmani occurring in northeastern Africa.

Biology:
It inhabits dry savannas, wooded savannas, and semidesert areas, breeding in temporary water (waterholes, ponds, pools) and sometimes also artificial pools and irrigation ditch.
Crepuscular and night activity.. They feed insects and other arthropods.

Description original:
Meek, S. E. 1897. List of fishes and reptiles obtained by Field Columbian Museum East African Expedition to Somali-land in 1896. Field Museum of Natural History Publication. Zoological Series 1: 163-184.

Described as Bufo garmani

Our records:
Qebri Beyah, Ethiopia (Trailin, Novak); Tog Wajalle, Somaliland (Mazuch, Novak); Bidre, Ethiopia (Trailin); Neghelle Borana (Trailin, Novak);

Common english name: Garman's Toad

Sclerophrys garmani - locality, between Neghelle and Bidre, Borana, Ethiopia



Sclerophrys kerinyagae (Keith, 1968)

Sclerophrys cf.kerinyagae - Meanit, SW Ethiopia, 1300 m.asl
Short description:
An African toad similar to Bufo regularis in size and habitus. It further resembles B.regularis in having a distinct oval tympanum with a horizontal diameter slightly more than half of the horizontal diameter of the eye, the first finger longer than the second, and a tarsal fold. Nevertheless, its mating call differs from that of B.regularis in being more rapidly pulsed. Moreover, the absence of black pigment on the throat of breeding males, the longer tibia and foot length, the less extensive webbing on the toes, the shape and position of the paratoid glands, the large spines on the back of the male in the breeding season, and its green coloration, readily distinguish B.kerinyagae from B.regularis [according to Keith].

Distribution:
This species occurs in isolated areas at high altitudes from 1280-3300 m, from central Ethiopia (on both sides of Rift Valley), to the south over the Kenya highlands (where it occurs normally on both sides of the Rift Valley, and in the Rift Valley around Lake Naivasha and Elmenteita). To the west extends to Mt.Elgon and southeastern Uganda. To the south extended to the edge of the Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania.

Biology:
It lives in montane grassland and forest-edge. It breeds in permanent pools, rain-fed temporary pools and flooded fields in montane grassland.
Nocturnal activity.

Description original:
Keith, R. 1968. A new species of Bufo from Africa, with comments on the toads of the Bufo regularis complex. American Museum Novitates 2345: 1-22.

Described as Bufo kerinyagae

Common english name: Kerinyaga Toad




Sclerophrys langanoensis (Largen et al.1978)

Short description:
A medium-sized frog, which reaches up to 65 mm. Dorsum is brown, redish-brown or greenish-yellow, decorated with pairs of brown, yellowish or redish blotches. The throat of males is tinted to yellow-orange or brown color. The parotoid glands are less obvious. The belly is white or creamish, often with darker mottling.
The mating call is a complex pulse train containing simple pulse trains of passively produced pulses. Particularly characterisric features are the passive pulse repetition rate [mean value 60.5 pulses/sec at 23"C) and low emphasised frequency (mean value 704.8 Hz at 23°C}. A medium-size member of the Bufo regularis complex. Morphologically most similar to B. blanfordi. Tympanum distinct; a tarsal fold; first finger longer than second; toes extensively webbed; cornified spinules extensively developed; conspicuous pale blotches on flanks and posterior face of thigh. Ecological data for type locality: mean annual rainfall approximately 1000 mm, mean annual temperature approximately 19°C [LARGEN, TANDY].

Distribution:
This species is known only from the northern Rift Valley of Ethiopia, at 700-1,585 m. It is known from two localities. At the Lake Langano and Awash National Park.
M.Largen considers that it might be found to occur in Eritrea and Somalia.

Biology:
It is associated with permanent water in arid savannah and semi-desert country. It has been found in and around small lakes, stream-fed pools, irrigation ditches, and large freshwater (non-alkaline) lakes, in a general landscape ranging from a sub-desert steppe of volcanic rubble, xerophilous grasses and thorn scrub, to heavily grazed Acacia savannah. It breeds by larval development in permanent lakes and pools.

Description original:
Largen, M. J., M. Tandy, and J. Tandy . 1978. A new species of toad from the Rift Valley of Ethiopia, with observations on the other species of Bufo (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) recorded from this country. Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Nuova Serie, Supplemento. Firenze 10: 1-41.

Described as Bufo langanoensis

Common english name: Lake Langano Toad




Sclerophrys pusilla (Mertens, 1937)

Short description:
A medium-sized frog, males reach a lenght 65 mm, females 70 mm. On the back less noticeable vertebral stripe, but never red color on the outer thigh. Skin rough . The Parotid glands are clearly visible, but rather flat and elongated with a number of significant warts. The males have one subgular vocal sac, and black bumps on the outer side of the first and second finger. On the second finger are sometimes vaguely visible. The tips of warts in males thorny, on females blunt. The large inner metatarsal tubercle reaches 0,5 až 0,7 of the length of the shortest finger. The color of this toad is very variable. Can be completely uniform brown to yellow, with paired darker blotches on dorsum. Markings on the legs are lighter, almost white. Warts are very well noticeable black tips. Dark lateral stripes are usually on the upper lip and legs. The flanks are usually in lighter colors.

Distribution:
Humid savanna and forest edges from southern Guinea and Liberia east to western Ethiopia and south to South Africa, Botswana and northern Namibia; (Mali? Equatorial Guinea? Southern Chad?).

Description original:
Mertens, 1937, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 435: 17. Holotype: SMF 22247 by original designation and according to Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 40. Type locality: "Leteba-Camp, [Kruger National Park,] Gr. Letaba-River, Ost Transvaal", Limpopo Province, South Africa.

Described as Bufo regularis pusillus

Common english name: Lake Langano Toad




Sclerophrys regularis (Reuss, 1833)


Short description:
A large robust toad. The males reach up to 90 mm, females up to 130 mm. Large parotoid glands relatively smooth, because warts on them are relatively flat. The tympanum large, and reaches 0.7 to 1.5 times of the diameter of the eye. The males have one vocal subgular sac. Warts in males are usually more pointed. The Internal metatarsal spur reaches 0.5 - 1 times of the length of the shortest finger. The dorsum dark olive, dark brown, redish brown or gray. Numerous dark spots on the upper lip, eyelid, and on upper side of limbs. Sometimes is visible thin and light vertebral stripe, which is more pronounced in young animals. The belly is white or beige, the throat of males is black.

Distribution:
This species is widespread in savanna regions south of the Sahara. In Ethiopia occur western parts, Rift Valley and northeast. They lives from sea level up to 2500 m.

Biology:
The species A.regularis is generally considered as a typical species of the African savannah, but that also extends to the edges of forests, forest clearings and edges of roads. It is also synanthropic species which occur even in villages and towns. This species is highly adaptable. But they does not lives in the tropical rainforest. Females lay their eggs on submerged plants in the warm waters. In the clutch is up to 12,000 tiny eggs in diameter 1.3 mm. They feeds ants, termites, milipedes, worms and other arthropods.

Description original:
Fitzinger, L. J. F. J. 1826. Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren Natürlichen Verwandtschaften nebst einer Verwandtschafts-Tafel und einem Verzeichnisse der Reptilien-Sammlung des K. K. Zoologisch Museums zu Wien. Wien: J. G. Heubner.

Described as Bufo regularis

Common english name: Egyptian Toad

Our records:
Jimma (Trailin; Tum (Novak); Metahara (Trailin, Novak, Mazuch); Gambella (Novak, Traili); Metemma (Novak, Mazuch); Omorate (Trailin);






Sclerophrys steindachneri (Pfeffer, 1893)

Distribution:
This species ranges from northeastern Nigeria eastward, through Chad and Central African Republic, to northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, southwestern Ethiopia, and northwestern and central Uganda. There is a separate population in southern coastal Somalia, coastal Kenya, and northeastern Tanzania (the species is absent from northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia).

Biology:
It seems to be particularly associated with marshy areas in humid grassland or wooded savannah habitats, and has been found around human settlements. It breeds in temporary and permanent ponds.

Description original:
Pfeffer, G. 1893. Ostafrikanische Reptilien und Amphibien, gesammelt von Herrn Dr. F. Stuhlmann im Jahre 1888 und 1889. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 10: 69-105.

Described as Bufo steindachneri

Common english name: Steindachner's Toad




Sclerophrys xeros (Tandy et al. 1976)


Description:
A medium-sized toad. Males reach 52–86mm SVL, females 55–87 mm. Snout obtusely rounded; nostrils closer to tip of snout than to eye; canthus rostralis moderately sharp; horizontal diameter of the eye a little greater than length of snout; tympanum well-defined, vertically oval, about 0.6 times the size of the eye diameter. The head is much wider than long. The dorsum has numerous conical warts, each of which bears a black spine. First finger longer than second, second a little longer than fourth; first three fingers densely melanized with nuptial asperities; fingers with indistinct marginal folds; subarticular tubercles large, simple except for the middle tubercle of the first finger which is partially divided; palm with numerous conical tubercles but lacking spinules; inner metacarpal tubercle well developed but smaller than outer metacarpal tubercle and half covered with melanized nuptial asperities. A prominent elongate gland on the posterior surface of the forearm. The inner metacarpal tubercle is smaller than the outer one, one half being covered by a black nuptial pad. The ventral skin is roughly granular, without asperities. The belly is cream, in males may be spotted. The females have pale throat, the males dark. On the inner part of the thigh can be red dots or lines. The coloration of females is more contrast.
Color (in alcohol) disruptively patterned olive-cream, gray, brown and yellowish. Dorsal background color cream to light brownish gray; six bilateral pairs of darker brown blotches with discontinuously darker margins: on tip of snout extending over loreal ridges, interorbital marks, near anterior medial edges of parotoids, near posterior medial edges of parotoids (largest and most distinct pair), posterior to the fourth pair, more lateral and aligned with long axis of parotoid and posterior to the fifth pair near the midline; a few nonpaired dark brown spots; remainder of dorsum more or less distinctly reticulated cream and brownish-gray. No B. regularis - like white spots on dorsum. No vertebral line. Parotoids, rictal glands and parts of dorsal surface of legs yellowish-olive. Dark melanized spinules prominent against lighter background. A pair of irregular cream stripes running from posterior of parotoids about half way to groin. Lower margin of orbit and part of area beneath the eye cream. An indistinct gray-brown canthal stripe extending from the eye to the upper jaw, but not posteriorly. Upper surface of limbs with ill-defined blotches forming cross-bars; posterior femoral integument with cream and gray reticulate pattern, red pigment (faded from that in life) visible against cream areas. Venter cream; gular skin gray-brown with cream granulation [TANDY et al].

Distribution:
Subsaharan Africa from Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gambia, and Senegal and south to northern Cameroon and east through Mali, Niger, central Chad, central Sudan and northern and eastern Ethiopia and southern Eritrea, Djibouti, southern Somalia, northern and eastern Kenya (possibly into southeastern South Sudan), northeastern Uganda, and eastern Tanzania, with an isolated population in the Ahoggar Massif of southern Algeria and in southwestern Libya, 200-1800 m elevation.

Biology:
A poorly known species. It inhabits very dry habitats, as semi-desert, shrubby savanna or tree savanna. They breeds in periodical or permanent water reservoirs. The diet of this toad includes arachnids and insects, and other arthropods.

Description original:
Tandy, M., J. Tandy, R. Keith, and A. Duff-MacKay . 1976. A new species of Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) from Africas dry savannas. Pearce-Sellards Series. Texas Memorial Museum. Austin 24: 1-20.

Described as Bufo xeros

Our records:
Metahara (Trailin, Novak, Mazuch); Yabello (Trailin); Awash Arba (Trailin);

Common english name: Desert Toad























































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