Herpetology of Ethiopia and Eritrea


Our records => Chamaeleonidae, Rafinesque, 1815


Some local names of Chamaeleons in Ethiopia:  
Afaan Oromo Garara
Amharic Isist
Tigrinya Nefahito - (Blowing)
Somali Jirjiroole









Trioceros affinis (RÜPPEL, 1845) - complex


Short description:
Casque not raised posteriorly, continuous with the body; a slight indication of a parietal crest; the distance between the commissure of the mouth and the extremity of the casque slightly exceeds the distance between the former point and the nostril; no rostral appendages ; lateral crest obtuse; no trace whatever of occipital lobes. Body coarsely granular, a few of the granules on the side slightly enlarged; a series of enlarged oval tubercle along the vertebral line; no gular nor ventral crest. No tarsal process. Tail a little longer than head and body. An interrupted white band along each side; a median white line along the belly. [Loveridge]

Distribution:
Endemic species of Ethiopia.. Ethiopian highland in western, central and northern Ethiopia at altitudes from 1600 m to 3300 m asl (Bale mountains, Dorse area, Harar, Gondar, Southwestern tropical forests...

Note:
There are several forms that exist within T.affinis which are clearly morphologically different. But so far there has not been any research completed to clarify the intraspecific relationships. It is possible that there are in fact several new species currently considered as only one.

Description original:
Rüppell, E.: Verzeichnis der in dem Museum der Senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft aufgestellten Sammlungen. Dritte Abteilung: Amphibien. Mus. Senckenbergianum 3 (3): 293- 316

Common english name: Ethiopian Highland Chameleon

Trioceros affinis - locality, south of Gore, Illubabor, Ethiopia



Trioceros harennae (LARGEN, 1995)      !


Short description:
Habitus rather squat, like that of Ch.affinis and Ch.rudis; head length less than twice its breadth (head + body: 51 mm, tail: ca 80 mm, tibia: 11.0 mm, head length from tip of snout to posterodorsal margin: 19.0 mm, head width between the temporal crests: 10.3 mm). Canthal crests very strong, in profile rising vertically to stand high above the level of the snout tip, continuous with the supraorbital crests; the latter rise gradually behind the eyes to form a pair of pronounced lateral crests that are the dominant features on the posterior region of the head and join one another at its dorsal extremity; interorbital and parietal regions concave; parietal crest very weak, not standing higher than the level of the lateral crests, feebly bifurcated anteriorly; temporal crests weak, rising from the posterior margins of the orbits at an angle of about 45° to meet the lateral crests; occipital lobes poorly developed, but sufficient to produce a slight groove across the neck; numerous small, shallow grooves on either side of the throat. Body scalation very coarsely granular but only weakly heterogenous, there being no well marked distinction between the smaller and larger scales, the latter not arranged in longitudinal rows. Dorsal crest heterogenous, consisting of groups of 1-4 conical spines separated by pairs of much less prominent tubercles; gular crest very long, composed of 21 large, laterally compressed, conical scales, with a maximum length approximately 45% of the vertical diameter of the orbit; ventral crest only moderately developed, consisting of a central row of conical tubercles supported on either side by a row of less prominent cones, extending a short distance behind the vent [according to LARGEN].

Distribution:
Endemic species of Ethiopia. Bale Mountains in central Ethiopia at altitudes 1900 - 2400 m asl.

Note:
They occupies only south slopes of Bale Mountains in central Ethiopia. Inhabits highland forest, activated like other mountain chameleons at relatively low temperatures. Insectivorous. Viviparous.
There are two subspecies:
Trioceros harennae harennae (LARGEN 1995) - Harenna forest, south slope of Bale Mountains.
Trioceros harennae fitchi (NECAS 2004) - Arbe Gona, Sidama keflehager, Ethiopia.

Description original:
Largen, M. L.: A new species of chameleon (Reptilia Sauria Chamaeleonidae) from montane forest in Ethiopia. Tropical Zoology 8 (2): 333-339.

Common english name: Harenna Forest Chameleon

Trioceros herennae - locality, south of Bale, Ethiopia



Trioceros balebicornutus (TILBURY,1998)


Short description:
A small chameleon with a total length (TL) of 162 mm. Casque flat. No parietal crest. The lateral crests terminate posteriorly in two large pointed tubercles on each side of the casque giving it a swept up appearance and causing the posterior edge of the casque to be shallowly notched in the midline. There is no temporal crest. The supra-orbital crest has a dentate appearence. The canthal ridges are smooth and each side terminates in an annulated horn which projects forward for 4 mm at an angle of 10° from the horizontal. The two horns are tightly opposed to each other. The nare is sited midway between the anterior orbital rim and the tip of the snout, opens inferiorly and has no indication of a nasal bulge. Gular crest composed of 18 elongated white conical tubercles, largest anteriorly and becoming progressively smaller posteriorly. The gular area is incised by 4 shallow grooves that are most noticeable posteriorly and enclose a few islands of enlarged oval tubercles. Dorsal crest composed of 8 large cones, largest anteriorly and followed by a rapidly diminishing series of pointed tubercles to fade completely by about 2/3 of the way along the keel. There is no crest on the tail. The gular crest is followed posteriorly by a midline ventral row of white tubercles that extends a short way beyond the vent. Scalation heterogeneous with large flattened platelike tubercles 2—3 times the diameter of the surrounding tubercles, profusely scattered over the flanks forming several vague rows. Tail and belly covered with finer sub-homogeneous granules. Eyeball skin coated with fine homogeneous granules. The tail is longer than the snout/vent length, comprising 53 070 of the TL [According to original description - TILBURY).

Distribution:
Endemic species of Ethiopia. The southern slopes of Bale Mountains (Harena forest) at altitude 1500 - 2600 m asl. It inhabit afro-montane moist forest, which consisting mostly from indigenous trees Hagenia abyssinica, Aningeria, Podocarpus latifolius and Schefflera abyssinica.

Note:
He lives mainly in the lower part of of the forest at a height between 1 - 5 m. In this area live sympatric with Trioceros harennae. Like most mountain chameleon also this species is viviparous. Poorly known species.

Description original:
Tilbury, C.: Two new chameleons (Sauria:Chamaeleonidae) from isolated Afromontane forests in Sudan and Ethiopia. Bonn. zool. Beitr. 47 (3-4): 293-299.

Common english name: Bale Two Horned Chameleon

Trioceros balebicornutus - locality, south slopes of Bale, Ethiopia



Trioceros bitaeniatus (FISCHER, 1884)


Short description:
A small chameleon, reaches up to 150 mm. Casque feebly raised posteriorly, with rather feeble parietal crest; the distance between the commissure of the mouth and the extremity of the casque equals the length of the mouth ; no rostral appendages; lateral crest feeble; no trace whatever of occipital lobes; 9 scales acres the interorbital space, crests included. Body covered with rather large granules intermixed with large flat or subconical tubercles; a dorsal crest of isolated conical tubercles; a series of pointed scales forms a distinct gular-ventral crest. No tarsal process. Tail as long as, or a little shorter than, head and body.

Distribution:
Kenya, Somalia, southern Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zaire and Uganda.
Ethiopia is known from several places in central Ethiopia ( Debre Zeit 1920 m asl., Sodore 1765 m asl. and Assela 2430 m asl.).

Biology:
Occupies higher altitudes of tree savannah or montane forests up to 3000 m asl. He lives on trees and bushes, often near human settlement. They feed insects. Females birth about 15 of juveniles. He prefers lower daily temperature (25°C - 28°C) with a significant decrease in night.

Note:
From the complex "Chamaeleo bitaeniatus" has been described over the past decade, several new species of small chameleons.

Description original:
Fischer, J. G.: Über einige afrikanische Reptilien, Amphibien und Fische des Naturhistorischen Museums I. Über die von Herrn Dr. G.A. Fischer in Massai Gebiete (Ost Afrika) auf seiner in Veranlassung der geographischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg unternommenen Expedition gesammelten Reptilien, Amphibien und Fische. Jahrb. Hamburg Wiss. Anst. 1: 1-32

Common english name: Side-striped chmeleon



Chamaeleo gracilis HALLOWELL, 1844


Description:
Head of moderate size, flattened above, depressed in front, presenting upon its upper surface a longitudinal carina, bifurcated anteriorly; each of the divisions resulting from this bifurcation, terminates near the posterior extremity of the supraciliary ridge; in front of the eye is a ridge continuous with the one above the orbit, extending toward the extremity of the nose. No denticulations are observed upon the supraciliary ridge, on the one just described, not upon the longitudinal carina, or its divisions; but they are very distinct along the superior margin of the temples. A number of small tubercles are seen upon the face, quite near to the extremity of the nose, and also upon the sides of the head in front of the nostril; a marked concavity exists upon the upper and posterior part of the head, immediately behind the bifurcation of the longitudinal carina; the space in front comprised between the two branches is perfectly plane; the head is covered above with polygonal scales of unequal size, and smooth for the most part; those situated in the depressions upen the upper and posterior part of the head are somewhat larger and more uniform in size then those upon the vertex and face; scales upon the sides of the head of nearly uniform size, many of them tuberculated; there are nineteen teeth on each side of the upper and lower jaw; scales upon the sides of the body of various shapes, some of them hexagonal, others pentagonal; the greater number are quadrangular: they vary also in size; those upon the body, near the spine, are the largest; some of the scales present a plane surface, others are more or less convex, and many on examination with a glass are observed to have a very distinctly elevated point in the centre; numerous small granules are interspersed between the scales upon the abdomen; none are observed upon the sides: scales upon the throat irregular in size and shape, many of them tuberculated, those along the median line the largest; scales upon the abdomen granular, of nearly equal size, many of them presenting an elevated point in the centre; those upon the under surface of the tail oblong, hexagonal, some of them pentagonal, many of them with a depression in the centre ; those upon the under surface of the hands and toes very distinctly quadrangular, arranged in transverse rows; extremities slender; tail somewhat longer (about a fourth of an inch) than total length of head and body. Colour: The predominating colour is green, presenting different shades under different circumstances; at times, the snout and matgin of the jaws, the neck, limbs and tail are marked with ferruginous; and a narrow vitta of a light chocolate colour is seen extending from the axilla to near the groin; the whole of the body presents at times the latter colour, mixed with dusky green or ferruginous; a triple row of black spots is observed upon the tail, extending from the root to within a short distance of its extremity; a similar row exists upon the back, corresponding with the transverse processes of the vertebrae: while one side of the animal presents these shades, the other, or that which is less exposed to the light, is of a uniform pea—green colour, except the lateral vitta and a small spot above the shoulder, which are of a light flesh colour, and at times perfectly white; on exposing the animal suddenly to the light of a candle, on one occasion, four or five irregular bands of a light chocolate colour were observed upon the body, extending from the back to the middle line of the belly, the intervening spaces as well as the bands themselves being marked with numerous dark coloured spots; these bands often became dark green, the intervening spaces being a shade or two lighter; seven or eight converging bands of the same dark green colour are obsorved upon the eyelids, their lower broadest part being directed towards the margin of the orbit; pupil black; iris golden; under surface of belly, groins, axillae, as well as inner surface of extremities, whitish with a shade of green. The same banded appearance above described, was frequently observed when the animal was in exercise, as when employed in efforts to get out of its cage, or when allowed to walk upon the table or floor; when quiescent these bands were rarely noticed [According to HALLOWELL].
Medium-sized chameleon, the females reaches up to 400 mm, the males are smaller. In morphology similar to Chamaeleo dilepis, but distinguished from them by absence of the occipital lobes. The scales on the body homogenous, dorsal crest low, but visible, gular crest continue to belly. The casque low, dorsal crest exceeds only by a few mm. The body green, on the flank lighter band, above the shoulder white oval spot.The skin on gular fold pinkish or redish, dotted with tiny granular scales. Body color green to yellow-green, sometimes brown, with small patches throughout the body (in gravide females). In males on hindlimbs tarsal spur.

Distribution:
Subsaharan Africa, southwest Angola, east to Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia, Sudan and Ethiopia.
In Ethiopia, apparently the western region and the Ethiopian highlands along river valleys. East of the Rift Valley and in the Rift Valley rather Chamaeleo quilensis. .

Note:
It occur on Acacia savannas or Sudan mossaic savanna. Males are highly territorial and will aggressively compete with other males. They may breed twice a year (according to climate), with two main egg laying periods occurring, one between the end of the wet season and onset of the dry season, and the other in the middle of the dry season, during which a clutch of between 22 and 50 eggs is laid. Incubation period about 200 days. They feed diverse insect, like grasshoppers, flies, wasps, bees, beetles, mantises ....etc

Description original:
Hallowell, E.: Description of a new species of Chameleon from Western African. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1841: 111-115

Common english name: Graceful Chameleon

Chamaeleo gracilis - locality, western slopes of the Ethiopan highlands, 60 km in front of the Gambella, W Ethiopia


Chamaeleo dilepis LEACH, 1819


Short description:
A large chameleon, which reaches up to 350 mm, the females may be larger, up to 420 mm. The size also varies by region. The head big, the casque exceeds the dorsal crest only by a few mm. The scales homogenous, the dorsal crest present as well as gular crest. The skin between scales on the throat is red or pinkish. The color mostly green, or green-brown, sometimes yellow, on the flanks are two visible lighter stripes, the lower one is a much more pronounced and extending across the flanks. The body is diffusely marked with numerous dark spots, which become bright yellow or orange when it is excited or ready to mate. The occipital lobes are movable, protrude from either side of the upper surface of its neck and covered with small scales. The tarsal spurs in males are present, but smaller than Ch.ruspolii. Distance from the corner of the mouth to the top of the casque, is approximately the same as length of the mouth.

Chamaeleo dilepis quilensis [as Ch.parvilobus] Casque feebly raised posteriorly ; parietal crest indistinct or feebly marked ; the distance between the commissure of the mouth nd the extremity of the casque nearly equals the length of the mouth ; no rostral appendages ; lateral crest strong ; occipital lobes present, small, free, movable. Teguments of the throat and body as in Ch.gracilis and Ch.dilepis. Male with a tarsal process. Tail a little longer or a little shorter than head aud body. Gular-ventral crest white ; usually a whitish streak on each side from the axilla, not reaching the groin. [Boulenger]
Chamaeleo dilepis dilepis
Casque feebly raised posteriorly; parietal crest indistinct or feeble; the distance between the commissure of the mouth and the extremity of the casque nearly equals the length of the mouth; no rostral appendages; lateral crest strong; occipital lobes very large, in contact in the median line behind the casque; scales on the occipital lobe large. Granules on the body subequal, rather large; a series of larger tubercles forms a feeny serrated dorsal crest; a very distinct gular—ventral crest. Male with a tarsal process or spur. Tail as long as, or a little longer than, head and body. Gular-ventral crest white; usually a pale streak on each side from the axilla, not reaching the groin; frequently a whitish spot above each shoulder, behind the occipital lobe. [Boulenger]

Distribution:
One of the most widely distributed chameleon species. In Ethiopia southern region adjacent to Kenya, Omo basin and southeastern Ethiopia. In the eastern region of Ethiopia (Ogaden) replace him very similar Chamaeleo ruspolii (Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolli GLAW 2015).

Note:
It inhabits warm shrub and tree savannah, at altitudes from 0 to 1600 m asl. It is very intolerant, not only for their own species, but also to other chameleons. Females are more aggressive than males and in the ecosystem occupy favorable positions. The females lays large number of eggs, about 50, in size 15 x 10 mm to deep holes. The incubation is a long and its duration depends on the temperature, but it can take up to nine months. The young reaching sexual maturity after 9 to 12 months. Ch.dilepis hunt arthropods, but also small vertebrates.

Description original:
Leach: in: Bowdich. Miss. Cape Coast Cast. Ashantee, App. : 493, 494

Common english name: Flapneck Chameleon or Bocage's Chameleon (Ch.d.quilensis)

Chamaeleo dilepis quilensis - locality, Neghelle, Borana, Ethiopia



Chamaeleo ruspolii (BOETTGER, 1893)


Short description:
Nahe verwandt mit Ch.dilepis, aber die Occipital lappen nur mit drei bis vier senkrechten Reihen von je sechs bis sieben auffallend (4 qmm) großen und flachen tafelschuppen besetzt. Weitere Unterschiede von dieser Art sind; Die Entfernung der Rachen-commissur von der Helmspitze ist deutlich größer als die Mundlänge, und die Brauencrista hört in 2/5 des Raumes zwischen Auge und Helmspitze plötzlich auf, läuft also nicht bis an die Helmspitze‚ ein Charakter, der unsere Art von Ch.dilepis und parvilobus Blgr. scharf unterscheidet. Der ganze Kopf ist mit großen, flachen Tafelschuppen bekleidet, die der Temporalgegend in nur fünf bis sechs senkrechten Reihen, sehr groß namentlich auch links und rechts von der Occipitalcrista und auf den Hinterhauptslappen, die nur sehr wenig schwächer entwickelt sind als bei Ch. dilepis. Die Anzahl der Tafelshuppen — auch die kleinsten mitgerechnet — auf einem Hinter Hauptslappen beträgt nur 25—30 (bei Ch.dilepis stets über das Dopelte); der Rückenkamm ist seitlich von ein bis zwei Reihen größerer schüppchen begleitet. Der Hinterfuß des ♂ zeigt eine stark ent wickelte spornartige Verlängerung. Hellgraugrün, mit oder ohne rothbraune Flecke und Maschen-zeichnung. Helmcristen, Rückenfirst und Kehle rothbraun, im Leben schön orange [According to BOETTGER].
A medium-sized chameleon, type specimen of male total length 263 mm, body 123 mm, the female 219 mm total lenght and 106 mm body lenght. By morphology similar to Chamaeleo dilepis. The scales on occipital lobes significantly enlarged, as well as on the temporal side. The casque greatly exceeds the dorsal crest, vertebral crest in the first third enlarged, conical scales in it large, surrounded with smaller conical scales. The distance from the corner of the mouth to the top of the casque is a noticeably larger than length of the mouth. The males have on hindlimbs significant tarsal spurs.

Distribution:
Northeastern Somalia and adjacent parts of Ethiopia (Ogaden). The actual range of distribution is unclear, due to poor findings. Type locality Ogaden, Ethiopia - in the original description "Ogadeen, Somaliland".

Description original:
Boettger,O. 1893. Übersicht der von Prof. C. Keller anlässlich der Ruspoli'schen Expedition nach den Somaliländern gesammelten Reptilien und Batrachier. Zool. Anz. 16 (416): 113-119

Note:
According to LARGEN & SPAWLS 2006 synonymized with Chamaeleo dilepis
Sometimes referred as ssp.Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii PARKER 1942
LANZA, NEÈAS as valid species Chamaeleo ruspolii.



Chamaeleo africanus LAURENTI, 1768


Short description:
A medium sized chameleon. Total lenght to 300 mm. The occipital lobes absent. The dorsal, gular and ventral crest present. Colouration is green, with two thin, horizontal yellow bands running across the flanks. The upper band longer. The extremities long, on the hindlimb of males pronounced tarsal spurs. In a similar speciesCh.calcaricarens are not present (or very small).

Biology:
In common with other chameleon species. It inhabits scrubland and wooded areas, wadis, oasis, riverbanks in the desert (Nil). He moves mainly in the branches of dense shrubs, but can be found him also on the ground. They hunt medium-sized insects, including hard beetles. The female lays up to 70 eggs, the youngs hatch on average after 200 days.

Distribution:
Chamaeleo africanus is one of the most common species of chameleon in Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa from the west to Sudan and northern Eritrea. Along the Nile extends into the Nile delta in Egypt, restricted population is also known from southern Greece (Peloponés). Records from Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea are understood to refer to Ch. calcaricarens although the range limits of both species are poorly known.

Description original:
Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Vienna, Joan. Thomae, 217 pp.

Common english name: African Chameleon or Sahel Chameleon.

Chamaeleo africanus - locality, Sai Island, Nubia, N Sudan


Chamaeleo calcaricarens BÖHME, 1985


Short description:
A medium-sized chameleon, which reaches up to 250 - 300 mm. In morphology and coloring very similar to Chamaeleo africanus, in males are missing tarsal spurs. The occipital lobe is not developed. On the back enlarged scales creates low dorsal crest, also gular crest is present and extends to the belly. The coloration very variable, from green to yellow, but also grey or brown. Horizontal yellow bands running across the flanks. Sometimes is the body diffusely marked with numerous dark spots.

Distribution:
Central and north east Ethiopia in lower altitudes, the Awash River basin, north to Eritrea towards the Red Sea, where it inhabits extremely arid areas. The range of this species is not clear due to historical confusion with the widespread Ch.africanus

Biology:
In Ethiopia occupies Acacia - Commiphora savannah,arid bushy xerofyte communities, but also a narrow bands of forest along watercourses (Awash). They often occur in very dry habitats with minimal occurrence of larger shrubs. Ch.calcaricarens is oviparous, the females lays about 50 eggs. The incubation period according to temperatures around 170 days. The young reaching sexual maturity after 12 to 18 months.

Note:
The taxonomic history of this species is complicated by historical confusion with Chamaeleo africanus (Spawls, Largen). The validity of C. calcaricarens is supported by differences in genital morphology and molecular genetic data.

Description original:
Böhme, W.: Zoogeographical patterns of the lizard fauna of the African subsaharan savanna belt, with preliminary description of a new chameleon. In: Schuchmann, Karl-L. (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the International Symposium on African Vertebrates. Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolutionary Ecology. Museum A. Koenig (Bonn), Vol. 4: 471-478.

Common english name: Spurless African Chameleon

Chamaeleo calcaricarens - locality, Gewane, NE Ethiopia



Chamaeleo laevigatus (GRAY, 1863)

Short description:
A medium-sized, but slender chameleon, very similar to the west-African species Chamaeleo senegalensis. It reaches to the size of about 250 mm. The casque is very short, slight, occipital lobes absent. The dorsal crest very low, as well as gular crest. The skin between scales on gular fold pinkish. The scales on body homogenous. The color mostly green to blue-green, gray, but also brown. Sometimes the body diffusely marked with numerous dark spots. The females during the gravidity may be dark, with numerous bright small spots. The males have on hindlimbs tarsal spur.

Distribution:
From central Africa to Sudan, Rwanda, Keenya, Tanzania, Eritrea? and Ethiopia. In Ethiopia western part of the country (Didessa River Valley, Gambella, Shishinda in Kaffa..), mainly in the valleys of the rivers which flowing through the Ethiopian highlands.

Biology:
It inhabits shrub and tree savannah, often with very scattered tree vegetation, the edges of forests and fields. At Sudan and in Eritrea sandy Sahel savannah. In arid and extremely hot areas over the dry season aestivated. They does not create dense population. Oviparous, females lay large numbers of eggs into small deep holes in the ground. The incubation period, according to temperature, around 120 days. They feed small arthropods.

Note:
Formerly was considered as subspecies of Ch. senegalensis, referenced as Chamaeleo senegalensis laevigatus.

Description original:
Gray, J. E.: On a new species of Chamaeleon. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (3) 12: 248.

Common english name: Smooth chameleon




Rieppeleon kerstenii (PETERS, 1868)


Description:
Rieppeleon kerstenii robecchii: Related to R. kerstenii PETERS, and likewise with a remarkably small head and uniformly spinose palms and soles; but limbs much more slender, tail longer, and supraciliary appendages more developed. Head covered with small granules and enlarged conical bony tubercles, of which two stand above each canthus rostralis; parietal ridge rather indistinct; a tubercular ridge intersecting the temple; supraciliary edge strongly projecting and bearing a large scaly dermal lobe directed outwards and forwards, the length of which equals two thirds the diameter of the orbit; chin with five spine-like dermal tubercles, the first in the middle, the others in two pairs directed outwards. Body and tail granular, with numerous, irregularly scattered, conical or sub-conical larger tubercles; no crests. Colour partly yellowish-grey, partly blackish, without any well-defined markings [BOULENGER].
A very small chameleon, maximal lenght to 90 mm. In morphology very different from "true" chameleons. The head has a flattened casque, eyes in proportion to the head significantly larger than in "true" chameleons. The inner part of mouth and tongue are yellow. The scales on the body heterogenous, some scales on the flanks and particularly on the extremities spiny. The tail is short, and the chin, face, and tail are adorned with numerous tubercles and scale clusters. Dorsal crest long on to tail. On the neck a few enlarged scales. The color gray to brown with darker longitudinal stripes. The males have a significantly thicker tail.

Distribution:
Coast of Kenya and Tanzania, Somalia. From Somalia extends into southern Ethiopia, and across Ogaden to north to Somaliland and adjacent parts of Ethiopia.

Biology:
He lives in bushy (Commiphora) and grassy savannas on the coast, but also extends deep to inland. It inhabits low shrublayer, including grass, sometimes it can be found on the   the ground in the undergrowth. Daytime temperatures in the area which occupying is so high, usually around 30° C. They hunt small insects, the youngs feed very small arthropods. Oviparous. The gravidity takes about 50 days and females lays a small number of eggs, usually 5-10, into deep holes. Incubation period takes, depending on the temperature, around 50 days.

Note:
In Ethiopia and Somalia occurs subspecies Rieppeleon kerstenii robecchii, BOULENGER 1892.

Description original:
Peters,W.C.H.: Über eine neue Nagergattung, Chiropodomys penicullatus, sowie über einige neue oder weniger bekannte Amphibien und Fische. M. Ber. k. preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1868 : 448-461

Common english name: Kenya pigmy chameleon

Rieppeleon kerstenii - locality, Dire Dawa, Harerge keflehager, Ethiopia





















































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