Herpetology of Ethiopia and Eritrea


Our records => Gekkota, Cuvier, 1817


Tarentola annularis (GEOFFROY DE ST-HILAIRE, 1827)



Description:
Body short and depressed; head large, depressed and swollen across the temporal region; snout equalling or slightly shorter than the interval between the eye and the ear. A supraorbital bone ; ear crescentic, nearly equalling the diameter of the eye, and with a denticulation at its anterior margin of conical scales. Ten or eleven upper and lower labials, the last upper labial usually small. Nostril generally defined by the rostral, first labial, and three nasals; rostral much broader than high, with a short median groove above ; mental about twice as high as broad, widely separating the chin-shields, of which there are generally two or three on each of its sides in contact with the labials. Head, from the snout to the occiput, covered with rather large convex polygonal scales, among which rounded tubercles occur on the hinder part of the occiput and on the temporal region and cheeks. From the occiput backwards to the tail and the upper surface of the limbs covered with slightly convex rounded granules, with many intermixed large convex or rounded tubercles, those on the trunk being arranged in 8 to 1 longitudinal rows, the tubercles on the back being slightly less convex than those on the sides. Skin on the cheeks, neck, and sides of the body in folds. Scales of under surface flat, hexagonal, imbricate, smooth. Tail shorter than the body and head, in broad well-defined verticils, the posterior border of each defined by a transverse row of tubercles. Nineteen lamellae on the pollex, twenty-one on the hallux, and twenty-two on the fourth digit. Colour generally greyish brown, but very variable, depending on the surroundings of the lizard, being in some almost black, and in others nearly white. Five dark transverse bands across the back, sometimes almost resolved into pairs of spots; two pairs of round equidistant white spots over the shoulder, one behind the other ; head occasionally with obscure dusky spots and a dark line through the eye to the sides of the neck, uniting with the first dark transverse band; labials dusky ; under surface white or occasionally speckled with dusky on the throat and sides of the belly; tail with dark markings like the trunk, but usually reduced to spots, and sometimes more or less margined with white. Snout to vent 130 mm., tail 78 mm [ANDERSON].
A robust Tarentola, which reaches size up to 140 mm SVL, total lenght up to 300 mm. Back and dorsal surface of tail covered with regular bands of low and smooth tubercles. Tubercles are separated laterally from each other by 6-7 small scales. There is an average of 27 lamellae under the fifth toe. Temporal region covered with large tubercles widely separated by small scales. Rostral enters nostril. Pupil vertical. General color of dorsum ranges between dark brown-gray to light sandy-gray. Back with 4-5 dark and light crossbars and there are usually 4 distinctive white spots with dark borders on the scapular region. Tail with light and dark bands. The belly white. Male larger than female, with broader head. The scapular spots are usually not easily discernible on juvenile animals and become well developed in adults. One of the largest gecko in Ethiopia. It is the only "Tarentola" in Ethiopia, can not therefore be confused with other species of the genus.
Specimen fro Giza, Egypt in FMNH: Upper labials 9-12, average 10. Largest specimen measures 154 (98+56)mm., the tail apparently regenerated [LOVERIDGE].
Tarentola annularis quadricauda TORNIER 1905: Schnauze so lang wie die Entfernung vom Auge zum Ohr oder etwas langer. Eine entschiedene Zähnelun vorn am Ohr. 11——12 Oberlippenschilder, „10“ an der Unterlippe. Um das Nasenloch herum liegen „3“ Nasalia; das Rostrale berührt das. Nasenloch nur wenig oder gar nicht, dagegen stößt das Labiale 1 ans Nasenloch. Rostrale 2mal so breit wie hoch. Mentale nicht 2mal so lang wie breit in der Mitte; hinten abgerundet. 3 Kinnschilder an jeder Seite, welche alle 3 an die Unterlippenschilder stoßen. Die beiden ersten stoßen dabei nicht aneinander, sondern sind durch das Mentale weit voneinander getrennt. Die Bauchschilder liegen nebeneinander, decken sich also nicht. Unter dem ersten Finger 16—17 Lamellen, unter dem vierten 19. Kein schwarzes Band durch das Auge bis zur Schulter [TORNIER in original] - see NOTE2.

Distribution:
Egypt, S Morocco, Western Sahara, SE Libya, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia (Abyssinia), Eritrea, N Somalia, N Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sinai, Senegal, Niger, Saudi Arabia ?, Cape Verde ?, Gambia, ?, Burkina Faso ?, USA (introduced to Florida), Djibouti. Central, eastern and north Ethiopia at lower altitudes (Metahara, Awash, Dire Dawa).

Note1:
Found in a variety of rocky habitats including cliffs, boulders, buildings, and ruins, even in very dry dusty areas. Insectivorous, and capable of taking fairly large prey, including other lizards. A very aggressive species with strong territorial inclinations. Males are particularly intolerant of conspecific intruders and will drive them off fiercely. The females lays one or two eggs during the year, mostly into rock crevices. Sometimes masse in one place.

Note2:
In 1905 was described from Somalia (nowaday Somaliland) subspecies Tarentola annularis quadraticauda TORNIER 1905. As different characters was presented a somewhat different shape of the tail, which is longer and less flattened, number of supralabials 11-12, 10 sublabials, 3 nasal shields, 16-17 lamelae on first digit, 19 on fourth digit. This subspecies is currently not accepted. Only one valid ssp. of the species is central-african Tarentola annularis relicta JOGER 1984.

Description original:
Geoffroy, l. Reptiles. In:Savigny, M.J.C.L. de, Description d’Égypte... Vol. l. Histoire Naturelle. Paris, pp. 121-160 (115-184) [1809?]

English common name: White-spotted Wall Gecko

Tarentola annularis - habitat, Danakil, NE Ethiopia


Cnemaspis dickersonae (SCHMIDT, 1919)

Short description:
A small gecko, which reach a total lenght of about 90 mm. The eyes big with rounded pupil, fingers long, with claws, and lack adhesive pads. In males 7-9 preanal pores. The dorsum grey, olive grey, with series of pale trianguler blotches which extending from the head to the base of tail. The labials are darker. Brown vertebral band from the head to tail.
Habitus more slender, neck more elongate and narrowed than in "guattuorseriatus" [Understand as Cnemaspis quattuorseriata (STERNFELD, 1912)], the snout equalling or slightly exceeding the distance between eye and ear, slightly more than twice the diameter of the eye. Tail much enlarged at base, with a large conical tubercle on each side beneath, tapering regularly for the remainder of its length, exceeding the body length. Limbs and digits slender, the latter strongly angulate distally. Eye with round pupil. Nostril bordered by the rostral, the first labial, two small posterior and a large superior nasal, the latter meeting its fellow on the other side, and appearing as if cut off from the cleft portion of the rostral. Mental large, triangular, followed by a pair of large postmentals, which are separated by two small median postmentals in the type, by one in the paratype. Granular scales on the snout larger than those of the back of the head. The ventral scales are rather large, three times the size of the dorsal tubercles, smooth and imbricate, 20 or 22 in a transverse series. The dorsal granules are small, with a row of conical tubercles on each side, 5 to 7 between arm and leg, and several above the swollen portion of the base of the tail, these flat and nail-like. Four tubercles posteriorly on the back, not paired with the lateral. No tubercles on the tail, which is covered above with small, smooth, slightly imbricate scales, larger on the sides, and below with a median row of transverse scales enlarged to about one-third the width of the tail. Color pattern as illustrated by Sternfeld but less distinct. A fairly distinct horseshoe-shaped dark band from eye to eye over the occiput, bordered behind by a lighter band, and dark marks from eye t0 eye and from eye to nostril. The colors in life are pale gray on the throat and venter, lower side of tail pinlush; gray above with light brown triangular dorsal markings, 6 on the tail, 8 on the body. There are enlarged subdigital plates on the proximal straight portion of the toes and fingers. The outer half of the distal curved part is covered below with transverse scales, while the inner half, to the angle, is covered with small elongate scales, scarcely in pairs [In SCHMIDT as Gonatodes dickersoni].
FMNH specimen from "Belgian Congo": Upper labials 6; lower labials 5-6; transverse rows of ventrals 20-27; enlarged lamellae beneath median toe 4; preanal pores 7-8. Largest specimen, a male, measures 72 (34+38) mm [LOVERIDGE].

Distribution:
Ethiopia, C/E Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, S Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda. In Ethiopia the southwest tropical forested region. Ethiopian locality near Jimma, west from Agaro.

Note:
Tropical and subtropical moist forests. It occupies cracked bark of large trees. Insectivorous. Oviparous.

Description original:
Schmidt, Karl Patterson: Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the Collection of the American Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part I: turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and chamaeleons. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39 (2): 385-624

English common name: Dickerson's Forest Gecko



Hemidactylus albopunctatus LOVERIDGE 1947


Description:
Head rounded; eyes large; ear opening small; body scales small, imbricated, smooth, some of them enlarged and erected; tail thickened, long as snout-vent length, covered by enlarged imbricated and smooth scales; limbs short but strong; fingers short, lamellae reduced (typical for terrestrial geckos); ventral scales small and smooth, imbricated; supraocular scales enlarged, erected;
The head rounded, the length from the eye to nose larger than equal as distance from ear hole to eye. Supralabials 7 - 8, infralabials 6-7. The body covered by imbricated scales, on the dorsum enlargered. Midbody scale rows 70 - 80 in males, 96 - 102 in females ; preanal pores 12-19; The hind limbs covered on the back side by scales and by several irregularly scattered tubercles. Lamelae on first digits 5 - 6, on fourth 6 - 8. The dorsum brown-grey or red-grey, dark stripe extends from the rostrum through eye to ear hole. On neck blotch shaped V. 5 - 7 bright ventral transverse strips. Maximum total length up to 100 mm.
Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; scales on the snout juxtaposed, large, polygonal; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial, and 3 small nasals, the uppermost in contact with its fellow; upper labials 7-8; lower labials 6-7; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, lower labials bordered by some enlarged scales. Back and belly covered with imbricate scales, largest on the back, about 70-80 encircling the body in males, 96-102 in females; males with 12-19 preanal pores forming an angular series; limbs short, overlapping when adpressed, hind surface of femur and tibia with some enlarged, irregularly disposed tubercles; digits free, slightly dilated, the distal joints of fingers short, of toes much longer, inferiorly with divided scansors, 5-6 under the first toe, 6-8 under the fourth toe, merging into the granular scales of the sole; tail, when unregenerate, cylindrical, tapering, covered above with smooth scales like those on the body; length of tail probably slightly shorter than that of head and body.
Color: Above, brownish gray; a black streak from nostril passes through the eye and above the ear and is bordered below by a white line extending along upper labials to the region of the forearm, below this again on the lower labials is an interrupted black line continued as a series of widely separated spots to forearm; from eye along temple a short whitish stripe may be present or absent; on the occiput a ˅-shaped marking followed by a series of from five to seven distinct, roundish white spots along the vertebral line; hind limbs spotted with white posteriorly; tail with a median series of transversely oval spots anteriorly, and with two alternating dorso-lateral series posteriorly [LOVERIDGE].

Distribution:
Eastern Ethiopia and Somaliland (Haud, northern Ogaden, Sof Omar), NE Kenya.

Note:
Unknown species. Lives under stones or among grass in sandy tree savana, at altitudes between 800 - 1200 m.asl. Nocturnal. Insectivorous. Oviparous.

Note:
As Teratolepis taylori in Parker; synonym, (not Hemidactylus taylori Parker, 1932a !)

Description original:
Loveridge,A.: Revision of the African lizards of the family Gekkonidae. Bulletin of the Mus. Comp. Zool, Harvard 98: 1-469

Common english name: White Leaf-toed Gecko

Hemidactylus albopunctatus - habitat, between Jijiga and Degeh Bur, E Ethiopia


Hemidactylus arnoldi LANZA, 1978

Short description:
A stout, big Hemidactylus, body length of the only known adult specimen = 82 mm, back covered with granules among which are scattered large, strongly keeled, subtrihedral tubercles forming 20 more or less regular longitudinal rows; tail shorter than the body, subcylindrical, tapering, without any basal constriction; nostril bordered by rostral, 1st labial and 3 nasals; 12-13 upper labials; 8-9 lower labia!s; 10 subdigital lamellae under the 1st and 14 under the 4th toe; a roundish, smooth, slightly convex, enlarged scale surrounded by the granular scales of the sole, halfway between the base of the 1st and 5th toe; very distinctive dorsal colour pattern of broad, dark, transverse bars on the neck, trunk, tail and limbs [According to LANZA].

Distribution:
Known only from one locality (500 m asl.) in north-west Somaliland, on the Djibouti and Ethiopian border.

Note:
The way of life unknown. Oviparous. Nocturnal. It inhabits very hot, dry and rocky areas almost without vegetation.

Description original:
Lanza B: On some new or interesting east African amphibians and reptiles. MONITORE ZOOLOGICO ITALIANO SUPPLEMENTO 10 (14): 229-297

Common english name: Arnold's Leaf-toed Gecko



Hemidactylus "angulatus" group

Hemidactylus angulatus juvenile - Metu, W Ethiopia

Short description:
Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear—opening; granular scales on the snout convex or flat, smooth or keeled, larger than those on the vertex, among which are scattered larger conical or keeled tubercles; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial (rarely excluded), and 3—4 small nasals, the uppermost usually separated from (rarely in contact with) its fellow by a single (rarely 2) granule; upper labials 6~11, usually 7-8; lower labials 6—8; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line or separated by a single granule, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small granules among which are scattered strongly keeled or subtrihedral tubercles forming 14—25 more or less regular longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; males with 22—46 preano—femoral pores forming an uninterrupt series (or interrupted by a single scale); digits free, moderately dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 4-6 under the first toe, 5—9 (usually 7—8) under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed, verticillate, covered above with small, smooth scales and 6—8 rows of long, pointed, keeled tubercles; below with imbricate scales of which the median series are transversely enlarged (regenerate tail swollen, carrot~shaped, covered above and below with granules with or without pointed tubercles); length of tail usually longer than that of head and body.
Color: Above, dull orange, a black streak from the nostril passes through the eye; on each side three pairs of rather indefinite ocelli which unite on the back with black saddle-like markings edged by white granules; tail bright orange ringed with black. Below, throat, belly and limbs transparent white; tail pale orange, the annuli less distinct.
Specimen from FMNH, Irumu "Belgian Congo": Dorsal rows of keeled tubercles 14-16; lamellae under first digit 2-4; under median digit 5-6; femoral pores 14-15 except No.12778 which has 3-3. Largest male measures 106 (65+41) mm [in LOVERIDGE as Hemidactzlus brookii].

Distribution:
Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Sudan, Central African Republic, Gabon, Uganda, south to Tanzania, west to Senegal, Nigeria, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal]; Gambia, Cameroon, Zanzibar, Pemba Island, Cape Verde Islands. in West Africa is probably a true H.angulatus, whereas in East Africa is a validity of the species uncertain.
In Ethiopia widespread area of distribution (Metu, Gambella, Omorate, Neghelle Borana, Langano, Mega, Yabello, Hawassa, Arba Minch....)

Note:
Very adaptable species. It inhabits rocky, grassy and sandy areas of savanna, subtropical and tropical forests, but also urbanized areas. It can be found under stones, under bark, on house walls, on fences ...etc. Insectivorous. Oviparous.

Description:
Hallowell,E.: Description of new species of Reptilia from western Africa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 64 [1852]: 62-65 3

Common english name: "Brook's House Gecko"

Hemidactylus "angulatus" - habitat, "Hawassa hotel" bungalows, Hawassa, S Ethiopia


Hemidactylus awashensis Šmíd et al. 2015


Short description:
A medium-sized species of the H. robustus species group within the arid clade of Hemidactylus characterized by: medium size with maximum recorded SVL 54.8 mm (45.3-54.8 mm in males, 38.5-52.4 mm in females); large and robust head (HL 13.3 +/- 1.7 mm, HD = 5.8 +/- 0.6 mm, HL = 26- 28% of SVL, HD = 41-46% of HL); relatively large horizontal eye diameter (24-29% of HL); uppermost nasals always separated by a small shield; large anterior postmentals in wide mutual contact; dorsum with 14 longitudinal rows of enlarged, strongly keeled, conical tubercles; low number of preanal pores in males (4-5); 8 lamellae under the 1st toe; 11-12 lamellae under the 4th toe; enlarged subcaudals; brownish grey colouration with a row of dark brown vertebral blotches starting on the nape and continuing as transverse bars (12-13) onto tail, smaller isolated dark patches also on flanks, dark horizontal stripe in prefrontal and temporal region [SMID et al. 2015].

Distribution:
Endemic. Northeast Ethiopia, probably Eritrea and Djibouti.

Note:
Accacia-commiphora savanna, open lava fields but also some buildings in lowland areas of central-east and northeast Ethiopia. Nocturnal. Oviparous.

Description original:
Šmíd, Jiří et al. 2015. Multilocus phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the Hemidactylus robustus species group (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) with descriptions of three new species from Yemen and Ethiopia. Systematics and Biodiversity, DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2014.996264

Common english name: Awash gecko

Hemidactylus awashensis - habitat, Metahara, E Ethiopia


Hemidactylus barodanus BOULENGER 1901



Description:
Head oviform; snout a little longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, which is rather large, oval, and oblique; forehead concave. Body and limbs robust. Digits strongly dilated, free, with long distal joints; lamellae nearly straight, transverse, 7 or 8 under the inner digit, 9 underthe median finger, 10 or 11 under the median toe. Upper parts covered with fine granules intermixed with large, strongly keeled, trihedral tuberc1es, forming about 16 very irregular longitudinal series; these tubercles oval or elliptical on the back, subcircular on the sides. Rostral quadrangular, little broader than deep, with median cleft above; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals; 9 or 10 upper and 8 lower labials; symphysial large, pentagonal ;two pairs of chin-shields, the inner large and forming a suture behind the point of the symphysial. Ventral scales moderately large, cycloid, imbricate, smooth. Male with an angular series of preanal pores. Brownish grey above; head spotted with brown; three brown dark-edged bands across the body, bifurcating on the sides; lower parts white [According to BOULENGER].

Distribution:
Ethiopia, Somalia (Dire Dawa, Gan Lebar - type,). Is also reported from west Ethiopia!!?.

Note:
Poorly known species. Stoned places, rocky outcrops, large rocks in Acacia-commiphora or grassy savanna.
Nocturnal. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description original:
Boulenger, G. A.: A list of the batrachians and reptiles obtained by Dr. Donaldson Smith in Somaliland in 1899. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1901: 47—49

Common english name: Enigmatic gecko

Hemidactylus barodanus - habitat, Dire Dawa, E Ethiopia


Hemidactylus bavazzanoi LANZA, 1978


Short description:
An apparently medium-sized Hemidactylus, body length of the only known adult 40 mm, back covered with small, smooth, subimbricate, slightly heterogeneous scales among which are scattered large, strongly keeled, subtrihedral tubercles forming 16-18 more or less regular longitudinal rows; tail subcylindrical, tapering, without any basal constriction and with numerous dorsal keeled tubercles (its length unknown); nostril bordered by rostral, 1st labial and 4 nasals, the uppermost one in contact with its fellow; 9-10 upper and 8 lower labials; 6 subdigital, moderately enlarged lamellae under the 1st and 9 under the 4th toe; cf with preanal pores (7 in the only known specimen); a very distinctive dorsal Hemidactylus fasciatus-like black pattern, on a pink ground, consisting of a broad crescentic nuchal band, two transverse bands on the trunk, a transverse band at the base of the tail and some caudal annula [According to LANZA].

Distribution:
Type locality about 20 km SE from Lugh, in the direction to Baidoa (about 03 °40'N-42°40'E; southern Somalia), Also extreme north-east Kenya (Mandera, on Ethiopian border).

Note:
Acacia-commiphora sandy savanna. Nocturnal. Oviparous. The way of life unknown.

Description original:
Lanza Benedetto: On some new or interesting east African amphibians and reptiles. MONITORE ZOOLOGICO ITALIANO SUPPLEMENTO 10 (14): 229-297

Common english name: Somali Banded Gecko



Hemidactylus barbierii SINDACO et al. 2007

Short description:
A medium sized Hemidactylus, male SVL = 40 mm, female SVL = 50 mm), with a very distinctive dorsal banded pattern. Back covered by large, trihedral, strongly keeled tubercles intermixed with a few small, irregular shaped granules, forming 14 quite regular transverse rows from axilla to groin (counted along a paravertebral line); nostril in contact with the rostral, first supralabial, one enlarged internasal (post-rostral) and 2-3 postnasals; rostral scale divided longitudinally for half of its length in the superior part; 6 lamellae under the first toe and 10 under the 4th toe; sole without enlarged scales; male with 8 pre-cloacal pores; female without pores [according to SINDACO].

Distribution:
The western shore of Lake Turkana, rocky and lava fields. Possible occurrence on the west bank of the delta of the Omo River in southern Ethiopia.

Note:
It inhabits hot and dry rocky areas. Nocturnal. Oviparous.

Description original:
Sindaco, R., Razzetti E., Ziliani U., Wasonga V., Carugati C., Fasola M. A New Species of Hemidactylus from Lake Turkana, Northern Kenya (Squamata: Gekkonidae). Acta Herpetologica 2 (1): 37-48



Hemidactylus citernii BOULENGER, 1912


Description:
Head oviform; snout a little longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, which equals the diameter of the orbit; forehead not or but scarcely concave; ear-opening small, elliptical, vertical. Limbs rather short; digits moderately dilated, free, with short distal joints, inner well developed; 4 or 5 lamellae under the inner digits, 6 or 7 under the median. Snout covered with large granules, back of head with minute granules intermixed with small tubercles: rostral tetragonal, broader than deep, with median eleft above; nostril pierced between the rostral and 4 or 5 small scales: 8 to 10 upper and 6 or 7 lower labials; symphysial triangular, nearly twice as long as the adjacent labials; four chin-shields, inner larger and forming a long suture behind the symphysial. Back with 14 or 16 longitudinal series of very large,trihedral, strongly keeled tubercles narrowly separated from one another by line granules; these tubercles as long as broad or a little longer than broad: ventral scales small, smooth, roundish, juxtaposed or subimbricate. Male with an angular series of 6 or 7 praeanal pores. Tail cylindrical, above with imbricate keeled scales and transverse series of large keeled, pointed tubercles. beneath with a series of transversely enlarged shields, pale reddish brown above, with chocolate-brown spots harming transverse series; a brown streak on each side of the head, passing through the eye; limbs and tail with dark brown cross-bars; lower parts whitish [According to BOULENGER].

Distribution:
Somalia, Somalialnd, probably adjacent parts of Ethiopia.

Note:
Its inhabit very hot and arid areas at lower altitudes. Nocturnal, oviparous.

Description original:
Boulenger, G. A. 1912. Missione per la frontiera Italo—Etiopica sotto il comando del Capitano Carlo Citerni. Risultati zoologici. List of the reptiles and batrachians. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (3) 5:329-332

Common english name: Speedy Leaf-toed Gecko



Hemidactylus curlei PARKER 1942

Description:
Habitus very depressed; head broad and flat, its maximum width much greater than the distance between the tip of the snout and the posterior border of the eye. Nostril pierced between the rostral, first upper labial and 3 nasals, of which the upper is separated from its fellow by a single scale. Rostral much broader than deep, with a median cleft. Snout flat, covered with rounded juxtaposed granules, which are much larger than those on the very flat occiput; eight upper, and six or seven lower labials; mental triangular, nearly as long as broad; median chin-shields very large, forming a long median suture; a much smaller second pair of chin shields is followed by some enlarged scales bordering the lower labials. Ear opening small, oblique, its distance from the eye equal to the distance between nostril and eye. Body depressed, with a slight, median dorsal furrow, covered above with somewhat irregular, flat, subcircular, sub-imbricate scales and below with cycloid imbricate scales which are nearly twice as large as the dorsals; the latter are not absolutely uniform in size, but there is no trace of any definitely enlarged scales or tubercles; about 87 dorsals and ventrals in a series round the middle of the body. Tail strongly depressed, with a median furrow, root-shaped and with a distinct basal constriction; it is covered above with imbricating scales arranged in transverse rows and is indefinitely annulate, 5 rows of dorsal scales forming an annulus; beneath there is a series of transversely enlarged subcaudals of which two occur on each annulus; the tip of the tail is regenerated, and this portion is not annulate, but covered above with quincuncially arranged imbricate scales and has transversely enlarged subcaudals. Limbs short, the adpressed hindlimb reaching the wrist. Digits well dilated basally and with moderately long terminal phalanges which extend well beyond the lamellar portion; lamellae extending on to the palms and soles, 5 under the inner, 8 under the fourth, and 7 or 8 beneath the fifth toe. Yellowish above, heavily blotched and spotted with purplish black. A dark streak from the nostril through the eye and above the ear to the sides of the neck from whence it is continued as a row of spots to the base of the tail; flanks with an indefinite row of spots, and middorsal area with series of rather irregular transverse blotches; tail with alternately darker and lighter cross-bars; limbs and flanks with scattered, circular, white spots. Lower surface white [According to PARKER].

Distribution:
Somaliland and adjacent parts of Ethiopia.

Note:
Poorly known species. All findings are from Somaliland (Borama, Hargeisa), coming from semi-desert localities where the geckos founds under rocks. Nocturnal. Oviparous.

Description original:
Parker, H. W.: The lizards of British Somaliland. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 91: 1—101

Common english name: Parker’s gecko



Hemidactylus flaviviridis RÜPPELL 1835


Short description:
Total length of males 180 mm. Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear—opening; granules on the snout convex, larger than those on the vertex; nostril bordered by the rostral (rarely excluded); first labial, and 3 small nasals, the uppermost separated from its fellow by a single granule; upper labials 12—16; lower labials 9-12; 3. pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small, uniform granules; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; males with 4-7 femoral pores on each side, widely interrupted mesially; digits free, strongly dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 7—10 under the first toe, 11—14 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed, carrot-shaped, verticillate, the swollen basal portion marked off by a faint constriction, covered above with small, smooth scales and 4—6 rows of large, smooth, flat, nail-like tubercles; below with imbricate scales of which the median series are transversely enlarged; length of tail longer than that of head and body.
Color: Above, yellowish green; circumorbital ring yellow; iris yellowish brown, pupil black; digits more yellowish. Below, bright orange yellow except for the pair of post-anal tubercles which are bright sulphur yellow, and the digital scansors which are bluish [according to LOVERIDGE].

Distribution:
Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar, Oman, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal, Pakistan, India, Socotra Island, Yemen, N Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Egypt.

Note:
Adaptable species. Mostly occupies buildings at villages and towns in lowland. The limiting factor of distribution is hot climate.

Description original:
Rüppell, E.: Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig, entdeckt und beschrieben. Amphibien. S. Schmerber, Frankfurt a. M.

Common english name: Northern House Gecko

Hemidactylus flaviviridis - habitat, Gewane - TOTAL hotel building, Afar kilil, NE Ethiopia


Hemidactylus foudaii BAHA EL DIN, 2003


Description:
A rather small slender gecko. Maximum recorded SVL 44 mm. Displays the main characters of the genus Hemidactylus as defined by Loveridge (1947): Digits clawed, with dilated pads basally; lamellae on ventral side of pads divided longitudinally; distal phalanges free, rising angularly from within dilated basal portion. Pupil vertical; upper palpebral fold distinct, lower vestigial. Males with preanal pores. H. foudaii can be distinguished from the more similar north-east African and Arabian Hemidactylus species (14 species), which share with it the possession of strongly keeled dorsal tubercles and a slender, cylindrical tail by the following combination of characters: very short terminal (free) phalanges, moderately dilated digital pads, coarse dorsal scalation and a distinct dorsal pattern of numerous narrow transverse bands. [BAHA EL DIN].

Distribution:
North east coastal Africa; Egypt (Gebel Elba), NE Sudan, northern and central Eritrea.

Behavior:
Acacia woodland, dry hills, under stones. Nocturnal species, insectivorous, oviparous.

Original description:
BAHA EL DIN, S. M. 2003. A new species of Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Egypt. African Journal of Herpetology 52 (1): 39-47



Hemidactylus isolepis BOULENGER 1895


Short description:
Total length of about 80 mm. Snout equal to or slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granular scales on the snout convex, larger than those on the vertex; nostril bordered by the rostral and 3—4 small nasals, the uppermost in contact with its fellow; upper labials 7—8; lower labials 5—7; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields present or absent. Back and belly covered with uniform, smooth, rounded, imbricate scales, subequal on back and belly, about 59—81 encircling midbody; males with 4—8 preanal pores forming an uninterrupted series; digits free, slightly dilated, with rather short distal joints, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 5—7 under the first toe, 6—10 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, cylindrical, tapering, covered above with small, smooth, imbricate scales which are larger than those on the body; below with smooth, imbricate scales of which the median series are slightly enlarged; length of tail slightly longer than that of head and body.
Color: Above gray or pale brown; 3 dark brown streak from nostril passes through the eye to the neck; back with irregular dark brown spots and scattered white dots which sometimes coalesce to form transverse lines. Below, whitish [According to BOULENGER].
This series shows a degree of variation not hitherto recorded. The head is never twice as long as broad (as it appears to be in the type), the subdigital lamellae of the thumb vary from 5 to 6, of the fourth finger from 7 to 8, of the inner toe from 5 to 7, and of the fourth toe from 7 to 10; the most frequent combination is 5, 7, 5, 8. The upper and lower labials vary from 7 to 8 and 5 to 7 respectively, there may be only one pair of large chin-shields, and the femoral pores vary from 6 to 8, the lesser number being the commoner. The number of scales about the middle of the body appears to vary with the sex; in males there are about 62 to 65 and in females from 67 to 77. The egg, which contained a nearly mature embryo, is of the usual oval, hard-shelled, geekonid type, and measures about 7 x 5 mm [PARKER].
Mouth of Kalliokwel River. Lake Rudolf (Turkana).

Distribution:
Acacia-commiphora savanna from northern Kenya, throw south Ethiopia to Somalia and Somaliland.

Note:
Terrestrial gecko with nocturnal aktivity. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description:
Boulenger, G.A.: An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in western Somaliland and the Galla Country. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond.: 530-540

Common english name: Scaly Leaf-toed Gecko



Hemidactylus jubensis BOULENGER 1895

Hemidactylus jubensis - Genale, Ethiopia

Description:
Total length up about 132 mm (SVL 67 + CL 65). Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granules on the snout larger than those on the vertex, among which are scattered small rounded tuberclw; nostril bordered by the rostral, and 4—5 small nasals, the uppermost separated from its fellow by a single granule; upper labials 10—11; lower labials 8—9; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small granules among which are scattered flat, feeny keeled tubercles forming more or less irregular longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; males with 6—10 preanal pores forming an uninterrupted series; digits free, moderately dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors which extend on to the sole of the foot, 6—9 under the first toe, 9—11 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed, covered above with small, smooth scales and rows of large, smooth, flat tubercles; below with imbricate scales of which the median series are transversely enlarged; length of tail usually shorter than that of head and body.
Color: Above, pale brown; a dark streak from nostril passes through eye; a lateral series of more or less confuent dark spots; back with five or six dark crossbars; tail similarly barred. Below, whitish.[According to Loveridge].

Distribution:
Ethiopia (Mil-Mil Upper Genale river, Borana). Somalia, Obia.

Description original:
Boulenger,G.A.: Rettili e Batraci. in, Esplorazione del Guiba e dei suoi Affluenti compeuta dal Cap. V. Bottego durante gli Anni 1892-93 sooto gli auspicii della Società. Geografica Italiana. Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Giacomo Doria (2) 15: 9-18

Common english name: Ethiopian Gecko



Hemidactylus laevis BOULENGER, 1901


Description:
Head short, oviform; snout as long as the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, which is small and round; forehead concave. Body and limbs rather short. Digits moderately dilated, free, with rather short distal joints; 4 1amellae under the inner digit, 6 under the median finger, 7 under the median toe. Upper parts covered with uniform small granules, largest on the snout. Rostral quadrangular, twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals; 9 upper and 7 lower labials; symphysial large, trapezoid, entirely separating the chin—shields, of which there are two pairs. Ventral scales moderately large, cycloid, imbricate, smooth. Brownish above marbled with darker, white beneath; a dark brown streak on each side of the head, passing through the eye; a dark brown, light-edged cross-bar at the base of the tail [BOULENGER].

Distribution:
Somaliland. Probably Somalia and estern Ethiopia.

Behavior:
Unknown species. Inhabit hot and dry semidesert, including towns buildings. Oviparous.

Original description:
Boulenger, G. A. 1901. A list of the batrachians and reptiles obtained by Dr. Donaldson Smith in Somaliland in 1899. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1901 (I): 47—49

Common english name: Common Leaf-toed Gecko

Hemidactylus laevis - locality, Erigavo, Sannag hotel, Somaliland


Hemidactylus laticaudatus ANDERSSON 1910


Description:
Hemidactylus laticaudatus laticaudatus::
Head, body, and tail much depressed. Snout rounded, about twice the diameter of the eye, distinctly longer than tlie distance between the eye and the ear-opening, which is small, oval, and vertical (about 1/2 the diameter of the orbit); forehead concave, Digits moderately dilated, free, the distal Joint long; 4 lamellae under the thumb and liallux, 6—7 under the fourth toe. Head covered with small granules, considerably larger on the snout, 11—13 in a row between the nostril and the eye; on the posterior part of the head small, round, smooth, scattered tubercles, smaller and flatter than those on the body. Rostral four-sided, nearly twice as broad as high, with distinct median cleft above; nostril pierced between the rostral and 3 or 4 small scales: 7 or 8 Upper and 8 or 7 lower labials; symphysial largo, triangulär, 4 chin-shields, median pair largest and in contact behind the symphysial. Back covered with small granules, about 20 in a line as long as the nose, intermixed with a great numl)er of small round obtusely pointed tubercles. irregulaiiy scattered; ventral scales imbricate, smooth, 10 in a line as long as the nose, the scales on tlie cliin granulär. Male with a series of femoral pores, interrupted in the middle by a short interspace, 6—9 on each side, Tail very depressed and flattened, in one specimen as broad as the neck, in the other considerably narrower, tapering to a tine point, and covered with smooth imbricate scales, arranged in verticils round the tail and intermixed with large, pointed nail-like tubercles in six longitudinal lateral series, three on each side: the tubercles in the outermost series are the largest, forming a serrated edge on each side of the tail ; the scales on the under surface of the tail are larger than those on the upper; of the latter there are about 7 transverse rows in a verticil, of the former only 2 — 5: there are no transversely enlarged median plates on the under surface of the tail, the merlian inferior scales, however, being larger than the lateral and regularly placed in pairs. Pale greyish brown above with live dark wavy transverse bands on the back, two on the posterior part of the head, and 7 —10 broad dark crossbands on the tail ; the head marbled with black, a narrow dark line from the nose tlirough the eye to the shoulder; the under surfaces uniform whitish, on the tail marbled with black. [Anderson - original description]
Total length up about 130 mm. Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear—opening; granular scales on the snout larger than those on the vertex, among which are scattered small, smooth tubercles;nostril bordered by the rostral and 3—4 small nasals; upper labials 7—8; lower labials 6-7; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small granules among which are scattered numerous, small, round, smooth, subconical tubercles forming more or less regular longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth, rounded imbricate; males with 12-18 preano-femoral pores forming an interrupted series; digits free, moderately dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 4 under the first toe, 677 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed, carrot-shaped, verticillate, the swollen basal portion marked off by a faint constriction, covered above with small, smooth scales and 6 rows of long, smooth, pointed, nail-like tubercles; below with imbricate scales of which the median series may (Gondar; Scortecci), or may not (Harrar; Andel sson), be transversely enlarged; length of tail longer than that of head and body.
Color. Above, pale grayish brown; 3. dark streak from nostril passes through eye to shoulder; head marbled with black and with two dark, wavy, crossbars on the occiput; back with five dark, wavy, crossbars; tail with seven to tendark cross bars. Below, whitish, the tail marbled with black. [Loveridge]

Hemidactylus laticaudatus fossatii:
Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granular scales on the snout larger than those on the vertex, amongwhich are scattered small,smooth tubercles; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial, and 3 small nasals; upper labials 9; lower labials 8; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small granules among which are scattered numerous, small, ovoid, perfectly smooth, subconical tubercles forming more or less irregular longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; male unknown; digits free, moderately dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 5 under the first toe, 6-7 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed, carrot-shaped, verticillate, the swollen basal portion marked off by a faint constriction, covered above with small, smooth scales and 6 rows of long, smooth, pointed, nail-like tubercles; below with imbricate scales of which the median series are irregular and but slightly enlarged in a double or single series; length of tail shorter than that of head and body.
Color: Above, clear grayish yellow; a dark streak from nostril passes through eye to shoulder; back indistinctly barred with darker; tail with a longitudinal stripe at base but distally with crossbars. Below, whitish or yellowish gray. [Loveridge]

Distribution:
Type locality Harar, Ethiopia.
In the northern part of Ethiopia and Eritrea (Hemidactylus laticaudatus fossatii SCORTECCI 1928) and
east and northwest Ethiopia - Harar, Gondar, Tana lake (Hemidactylus laticaudatus laticaudatus ANDERSSON 1910)

Note:
Poorly known species. It inhabits high altitudes areas of Ethiopian plateau at altitudes of about 1800 - 2200 m asl. Mostly on rocks, on big trees, but also on buildings in towns where is quite common. Insectivorous. Oviparous. Nocturnal.

Description original:
Andersson, L. G.: A new species of Hemidactylus from Harrar, Abyssinia. Jahrbüchern des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde in Wiesbaden, 63:200-205

Common english name: Andersson's Leaf-toed Gecko

Hemidactylus laticaudatus locality, Akrya, Asmara, Eritrea


Hemidactylus mabouia (MOREAU DE JONNÈS 1818)

Hemidactylus mabouia - Filtu, S Ethiopia
Hemidactylus mabouia - Nairobi, Kenya

Description:
Snout much longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granules on the snout convex, larger than those on the vertex, among which are scattered larger rounded tubercles; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial (sometimes excluded), and 2-4, usually 3, small nasals, the uppermost separated from (rarely in contact with) its fellow by a single (rarely 2) granule; upper labials 9-14; lower labials 7—11; a pair of large postmentals in contact (or very rarely separated by a single granulel or plate?) on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair (rarely subdivided) of chin shields. Back covered with small granules among which are scattered convex, striated, keeled or subtrihedral tubercles forming 9—18 more or less irregular longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; males with 24—54; preano-femoral pores forming an uninterrupted series; digits free, moderately dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 5—6 under the first toe, 7—9 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed, covered above with small, smooth scales and 6 rows of long or high, conical or painted, smooth or obtusely keeled tubercles; below with imbricate scales of which the median series are transversely enlarged (regenerate tail covered above and below with heterogenous scales which may, or may not, be transversely enlarged below, and which may, or may not, have tubercles above); length of tail longer than that of head and body in adults, subequal in young.
Color: Above, gray, light brown, or brown, uniform, or spotted with darker; back with five wavy crossbars; tail with ten, usually more distinct, black crossbars. Below, whitish, or more or less minutely punctate with black; subdigital scansors dark. Nieden writes of a Cameroons specimen in which black speckling beneath the tail had coalesced to form more or less interrupted longitudinal lines. [Loveridge]

Distribution:
Mali, Senegal, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Benin, Togo, Nigeria, Guinea, Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Kenya, Zambia, Gabon, Ethiopia, Eritrea?, Cameroon, Swaziland, Mozambique, Sao Tome, Principé, Chad, Namibia.
In Ethiopia a rather rare species, mostly in southeast on town buildings.

Note:
Nocturnal. Associated with buildings, walls, or rocks, bridges, and other objects; also found under the bark of dead trees. Oviparous. Eggs are laid under objects, sometimes in buildings; also in rock crevices, tree hollows, stone walls, walls of houses, etc. Insectivorous.

Description:
Moreau de Jonnès, A.: Monographie du mabouja des murailles, on Gecko Mabouja des Antilles. Bull. Scient. Soc. Philomath. Paris, Ser. 3,5:138-139.

Common english name: Moreau’s Tropical House Gecko Gecko



Hemidactylus macropholis BOULENGER 1896


Distribution:
Head oviform; snout a little longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, once and one third the diameter of the orbit; forehead concave; ear—opening elliptical, oblique, two thirds the diameter of the eye. Body stout; limbs short. Digits moderately dilated, free, inner well developed; 7 or 8 lamellae under the inner digits, 10 to 12 under the median. Head covered with small granules, largest on the snout, intermixed with small tubercles; rostral tetragonal, a little broader than deep; cleft above; nostril pierced between the rostral and three or four small scales; 9 upper and 8 lower labials; symphysial triangular, more than twice as long as the adjacent labials; four chin-shields, inner largest and in contact behind the symphysial. Upper parts with minute granules and 12 or M longitudinal series of very large, trihedral, strongly keeled tubercles, which are mostly longer than broad; ventral scales small, smooth, roundish, imbricate. Male with an angular series of 8 to 10 praeanal pores. Tail rounded, feebly depressed, above .with transverse rows of large keeled tubercles, beneath with a series of transverse shields. Uniform sandy grey or (brick-brown) above, white beneath. [Boulenger]

Distribution:
Acacia-commiphora savanna of somali arid zone. In Ethiopia south Borana and Ogaden. East of Moyale town.

Note:
It inhabits semi-arid savanna, under bark or on termite hills. Oviparous. Nocturnal.

Description original:
Boulenger,G.A.: A list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the late Prince Eugenio Ruspoli in Somaliland and Gallaland in 1893. Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Genova, Giacomo Doria, (2) 17: 5-14 [11]

Common english name: Boulenger’s gecko

Hemidactylus macropholis - habitat, Degeh Bur, Harerge keflehager, E Ethiopia


Hemidactylus ophiolepis BOULENGER 1903


Short description:
Total length of about 100 mm. Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granular scales on the snout flat, larger than those on the vertex; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial, and 3 small nasals, the uppermost in contact with its fellow; upper labials 7; lower labials 6; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back and belly covered with uniform, smooth, rounded, imbricate scales, largest on the back, about 50 encircling midbody; limbs without any strikingly large tubercles posteriorly; males with 8 preanal pores forming an uninterrupted series; digits free, slightly dilated, with rather short distal joints, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 4 under the first toe, 9 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, cylindrical tapering, covered above with small, smooth, imbricate scales which are larger than those on the body; below with smooth, imbricate scales of which the median series are transversely enlarged; length of tail slightly longer than that of head and body. Above, pale gray-brown; a dark brown streak from nostril passes through the eye; back with small dark brown spots and interrupted transverse whitish lines. Below, whitish.

Distribution:
Ethiopia (Awash - Ilala Sala) and eastern Ethiopia (Dire Dawa), Somaliland.

Note:
Poorly known terrestrial species. It inhabits semi-arid savannas. Oviparous.

Description original:
Boulenger, G. A.: Descriptions of two new lizards discovered by Mr. E. Degen in (sic) his journey to Abyssinia. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 11:54-55

Common english name: Snakescale Leaf-toed Gecko

Hemidactylus ophiolepis - habitat, Dire Dawa, Dire Dawa federal kilil, E Ethiopia


Hemidactylus ophiolepoides LANZA 1978


Description:
A medium sized geckos similar to Hemidactylus ophiolepis. The adjective "oides" means "similar to" or "having the appearance of", in this case, ophiolepis = ophilepoides. The head slightly depressed, ratio of the length-width = 1,41. Pupil vertical. Nostril contact to rostrale and 3 nasale. 22-25 preano-femoral pores. Digits with lamellae. The tail subcylindrical, tapering, slightly longer than the total length of the body (head + body).
Color: pale brown or pinkish-brown, with a distinct spots. Brown strip from nostril to the eye. Rostrale a supralabials pale brown, some with bright dots. Supralabials = 6-7, infralabials = 5-6, Midbody scale rows = 53-59. Morphologically very close to H.ophiolepis.

Distribution:
Eastern Ethiopia, northeast Somalia and Somaliland.

Note:
Its inhabits arid areas at lower altitudes. Nocturnal. Oviparous. Insectivorous. Poorly known species.

Description original:
Lanza B.: A new Somali Hemidactylus (Reptilia Gekkonidae). MONITORE ZOOLOGICO ITALIANO SUPPLEMENTO 11(5) 1978: 111-117

Common english name: Lanza's Leaf-toed Gecko



Hemidactylus platycephalus PETERS 1854

Hemidactylus platycephalus - Filtu, S Ethiopia

Short description:
Very similar to H.mabouia. Maximal length up to 190 mm, SVL 100 mm. Head big; body flattened; on body scattered round enlarged scales; pupil vertical; iris orange. In males 45-57 preanal pores.
Hemidactylus platycephalus n.sp.; cinereus, fasciis latis traneversis irregularibus nigrofuscis: tuberculis parvis dorsalibus per series longitudinales, aculeis caudalibus per series transversales dispositis; poris femoralibus ante anum angulo obtuso conjunctis; scutello rostrali lato, supra inciso; scutellis supralabialibus serie scutellorum minorum marginatis; pupilla verticali; pollicibus unguiculatis brevibus -
In Häusern, nicht allein an verschiedenen Küstenorten der Provinz Mossambique, sondern auch auf der Comoreninsel Anjoana. Die Eingeborenen dieser Insel nennen das Thier camatsúngi [According to PETERS].

Distribution:
Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, E Zambia, E Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi; islands of Lamu, Pemba, Zanzibar, Mafia, Anjoana, Comoro islands, Madagascar (Nosy Komba) South Ethiopia (Filtu, Wachille).

Note:
It inhabit wooded savanna, where occupies mostly large trees. Also in towns on buildings as H.mabouia. Nocturnal, although it can be seen in the day. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description original:
Peters,W.C.H.: Diagnosen neuer Batrachier, welche zusammen mit der früher (24. Juli und 17. August) gegebenen Übersicht der Schlangen und Eidechsen mitgetheilt werden. Ber. Bekanntmach. Geeignet. Verhandl. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1854: 614-628

Common english name: Flathead Leaf-toed Gecko

Hemidactylus platycephalus - habitat, south of Neghelle Borana, 5° 6'26.19"N 39°35'47.92"E, S Ethiopia


Hemidactylus robustus HEYDEN 1827


Description:
A small gecko, total length up about 100 mm. Head oviform; distance between anterior border of orbit and tip of snout equal to the distance between the posterior border of orbit and that of the ear; eye slightly shorter than its distance from the nostril; forehead only very slightly concave; ear-opening large, laterally compressed. Body and limbs moderate; digits rather long, well dilated, with long terminal phalanges, the claws extending far beyond the digital expansion; subdigital lamellae not extending on to the soles of the feet; 6, 6, 7, 7, and 7 beneath the first to fifth fingers, respectively, and 5, 7, 8, 9, and 8 beneath the first to fifth toes. Head with juxtaposed granules, largest on the loreal region; rostral quadrangular, twice as broad as high, with a median cleft above; nostril pierced between the rostral and three nasals, the uppermost of which is separated from its fellow by a single granule; 9 upper and 7 lower labials; symphysial pentagonal, scarcely twice as long as an adjacent labial; 2 pairs of chin-shields, the inner broadly in contact behind the symphysial. Above covered with uniform small granules and scattered, rather feebly heeled, subtrihedral tubercles arranged in from 14 to 16 longitudinal series on the dorsum, about 35 transverse series between base of tail and back of head. Below with small cycoloid, imbricate scales, forming about 30 longitudinal rows at midbody, a subtriangular area of much enlarged scales in front of the anus posterior to 6 preanal pores. Tail tapering, rounded above, flattened beneath; above with flat, almost smooth, nail-like tubercles arranged in 5 longitudinal series; below, a median series of enlarged plates flanked by small flat scales. Color: Above, drab with a series of dark brown spots and dashes arranged in longitudinal lines on the nape where they are most numerous, they tend to form transverse bars on base of tail; a streak from the nostril, through the eye, to the side of the neck. Below, uniformly white.

Distribution:
Arid and semi-arid regions of the Horn of Africa. Eastern Ethiopia, Somalia, northern Ethiopia (Tigray), Eritrea, Sudan, Egypt along the coast of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia and northeast Kenya.

Note:
It inhabit rocks, big stones or buildings in towns. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description original:
Heyden, C. H. G. von.: Reptilien. In Rüppell, E. Atlas zu Reise im nördlichen Afrika. l. Zoologie. H.L. Brönner, Frankfurt a. M., pp. 1-24

Common english name: Heyden’s gecko



Hemidactylus ruspolii BOULENGER 1896


Description:
Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; no granular scales on the snout which, like the vertex, is entirely covered with large conical or keeled tubercles of variable size, the largest on the occiput; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial, and 3-5 small nasals, the uppermost of which is in contact with its fellow; upper labials 8—10; lower labials 7—8; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small granular scales among which are scattered strongly keeled or trihedral tubercles forming 14—18 more or less regular longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate, lateral edge of belly bordered by a series of small, round tubercles; males with 28—34 preanodemoral pores forming an uninterrupted series; digits free, moderately dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 4-5 under the first toe; 6—8 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed, carrotashaped, verticillate, the swollen basal portion marked off by a faint constriction, covered above with small smooth scales and 10 (at least at base) rows of long, pointed, keeled tubercles; below with imbricate scales (regenerate tail, leaf-like, depressed, covered above and below with granules devoid of tubercles); length of tail usually shorter than that of head and body.
Color: Above, gray brown; a dark streak from nostril passes through the eye; back spotted or marbled with dark brown or black, or wavy, black, crossbars, or series of longitudinal blotches, some of the dorsal tubercles white; tail ringed with darker and lighter. Below, whitish. [Loveridge]

Distribution:
Acacia - commiphora savanna in Kenya, in Ethiopia the south from Lake Turkana to the east accros Ogaden to Somalia.

Note:
Rather terrestrial species which living on the rocks, or tree trunks or under the bark of fallen trees. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description original:
Boulenger,G.A.: A list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the late Prince Eugenio Ruspoli in Somaliland and Gallaland in 1893. Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Genova, Giacomo Doria, (2) 17: 5-14 [11]

Common english name: Ruspoli’s gecko



Hemidactylus sinaitus BOULENGER 1885

Hemidactylus sinaitus - Asayta, NE Ethiopia

Description:
Small gecko, similar to Hemidactylus turcicus or H.robustus. The body covered by rounded, tubercular, enlarged scales, which is surrounded by small granulose scales. Digits with lamellae and with sharp claws, 5 - 8 lamelae on first digits and 8 - 11 on the fourth. Males with 2 - 6 (4) preanal pores.
Digits very short and with fewer lamellae, viz. five under the inner digits, seven under the fourth finger, and eight under the fourth toe. Rostral not entering the nostril. No enlarged subcaudals. Nine upper and eight lower labials. Dorsal tubercles in fourteen longitudinal series. Four prasanal pores. Grey-brown above, most of the dorsal tubercles white. Upper labials 9-10; lower labials 6-8 [according to PARKER].

Distribution:
Eritrea, northern Sudan, northeast Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somaliland and Yemen.
A real range of the distribution is not quite clear, many records can be confused with similar species H.robustus or H.turcicus.

Note:
It inhabits semi-arid and arid areas, coastal semi-desert, rocky islands, wasteland of Danakil desert, and lava fields in central Ethiopia.
They lives secretly under rocks and in rock crevices. Insectivorous. Females lays spherical eggs under stones or into cracks in rocks.

Description original:
Boulenger, G.A.: Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp.

Common english name: Red Sea gecko

Hemidactylus sinaitus - habitat, Asayta, building walls in town, Afar kilil, NE Ethiopia


Hemidactylus smithi BOULENGER 1895

Hemidactylus smithii - Somaliland

Description:
Total length of about 90 mm. Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granules on the snout larger than those on the vertex, among which are scattered small, rounded tubercles; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial, and 3 small nasals, the uppermost separated from its fellow by two granules; upper labials 11-14; lower labials 10; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, followed by three small chin shields which are separated from the labials in the type. Back covered with small granules among which are scattered flat or conical, smooth tubercles irregularly disposed; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; males with 28—32 preano-femoral pores forming an uninterrupted series; digits free, moderately dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors which extend on to the sole of the foot, 6-9 under the first toe, 9—11 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed slightly, covered above with small, smooth scales and rows of large, smooth, flat tubercles; below with imbricate scales of which the median series are transversely enlarged.
Color: Above, gray; back with more or less distinct wavy crossbars which are finely edged with black behind; tail similarly barred. Below whitish [BOULENGER].

Distribution:
Somaliland (Burao distrikt, Golis Mt., Haud, Nogal Valley) and eastern Ethiopia (Wabe Shebelle, Ogaden)

Note:
Semiarboreal species.It inhabits semiarid areas at altitudes up to 1200 m asl, mostly on tree truncks. Nocturnal. Insectivorous.

Description original:
Boulenger, G.A.: An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in western Somaliland and the Galla Country. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond.: 530-540

Common english name: Smith's Leaf-toed Gecko

Hemidactylus smithii - habitat, Somaliland


Hemidactylus somalicus PARKER 1932


Description:
Head oviform ; distance between anterior border of orbit and tip of snout a little longer than the distance between eye and ear; forehead slightly concave; ear-opening small, vertically oval. Body slender ; limbs slender. Digits short, moderately dilated, free, with moderately long undilated distal portions; subdigital lamellae not extending on to the solcs of the feet; 5, 7, 7, 8, and 7 lamellae under the first to fifth fingers respectively, and 6, 8,9, 10, and 8 beneath the toes. Head with juxtaposed granules, considerably larger on the snout than on the occiput ; rostral quadrangular, with a median cleft abovc, twice as broad as deep ; nostril pierced bekween the rostral and three nasals, the inner of which is in contact with its fellow; 11 upper and 9 lower labials; symphysial pentagonal; a small pair of chin-shields just in contact behind the symphysial and a row of 5 or 6 enlarged scales bordering the lower labials. Upper surfaces covered with granules (juxtaposed anteriorly, but imbricate behind and on the flanks), uniform in front, but with a few irregularly scattered slightly enlarged scales posteriorly. Lower surfaces with small cycloid imbricating scales, larger posteriorly; about 16 longitudinal series at the middle of the body correspond to a distance equal to the length of the eye, No femoral or preanal pores. Tail tapering, not annular nor constricted off from the body, with a median furrow dorsally; caudal scales imbricate, larger than the dorsals.
Pinkish-white above, dusted with dark brown ; the latter coloiir forms an indefinite pattern, consisting of a semicircular band from eye to eye, 4 other cross-bars on the body and about 11 transverse bars on the tail; the bars on the body tend to broaden and break up on the flanks; anterior margin of eye white [PARKER].
Maximum length of about 90 mm. Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granules on the snout larger than those on the vertex; nostril bordered by the rostral and 3 small nasals, the uppermost in contact with its fellow; upper labials 8—11; lower labials 7—9; a pair of large postmentals in contact or separated on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small granules, juxtaposed anteriorly but imbricate posteriorly and on the flanks, uniform anteriorly but with a few slightly enlarged scales irregularly scattered posteriorly; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate, larger posteriorly, about 12-16 in longitudinal series at midbody corresponding_to a distance equal to the diameter of the eye; males with neither pieanal nor femoral pores; digits free, slightly dilated, the claws extending well beyond the digital expansion; inferiorly with oblique scansors, 5-6 under the first toe, 9—10 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, subcylindrical, tapering, covered above with small, smooth, imbricate scales which are larger than the dorsals; length of tail equal to that of head and body.
Color: Above, pinkish white dusted with dark brown; head sometimes dotted with brown particularly in front of eye, the anterior border of which is white; from eye to eye a dark brown semicircular band; back with, or without, small circular white dots, and with four dark brown crossbars which tend to broaden and break up upon the flanks; tail with about eleven dark brown crossbars. Below, whitish.

Distribution:
Somaliland (Borama District; Haud; Nogal Valley; Sol Haud), východní Etiopie.

Note:
It inhabits rocky semi-arid areas,including towns, at altitudes about 700 to 1000 m asl. The way of life of this species is almost unknown. Nocturnal. Insectivorous. Oviparous.

Description original:
Parker,H.W.: Two collections af amphibians and reptiles from British Somaliland. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1932: 335-367

Common english name: Northern Somali Leaf-toed Gecko

Hemidactylus somalicus - habitat, Somaliland


Hemidactylus squamulatus TORNIER 1896


Description:
Snout equal to, or slightly longer than, the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granular scales on the snout convex, some keeled, larger than those on the vertex, among which are scattered larger, rounded or oval, conical or keeled, tubercles; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial (sometimes excluded), and 3—4 small nasals, the uppermost in contact with its fellow, or separated by a single granule; upper labials 6-8; lower labials 5-7; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line or rarely separated (in type of alluaudi only), an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with heterogeneous, smooth, imbricate scales among which are scattered strongly keeled scales forming 10—16 more or less regular longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; males with 10—20 preanal or preano—femoral pores forming a scarcely interrupted series; digits free, moderately dilated, with rather short distal joints, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 375 under the first toe, 6—8 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, cylindrical, tapering, covered above with large, smooth, imbricate scales, below with imbricate scales of which the median series are moderately transversely enlarged (regenerate tail carrot-shaped, covered above and below with large, smooth, heterogencus scales); length of tail equal to, or slightly shorter than, that of head and body.
Color: Above, pale or dark brown, a darker streak (sometimes represented only by a spot) from nostril passing through the eye is continued on to the occiput where it unites with its fellow, thus forming a characteristic semi-circular marking; lips with Centre of each labial flecked with brown; back with brown crossbars or reticulations (scarcely distinguishable in one pallid specimen), the enlarged keeled scales black or brown tipped posteriorly with cream or White, such coloring being particularly noticeable on the flanks. Below, whitish [LOVERIDGE as Hemidactylus tropidolepis squamulatus].
Hemidactylus squamulatus floweri WERNER 1908: Upper nasal separated from its fellow by a single granule; upper labials 10; lower labials 5; lamellae under first toe 5; lamellae under fourth toe 7; male with 14 preanal pores [LOVERIDGE as Hemidactylus tropidolepis floweri].

Distribution:
Tanzania, Kenya, southern Somalia and southern Ethiopia.

Note:
Nocturnal. Terrestrial species. Lives in grassy Acacia-Commiphora savanna. Biology unknown. Oviparous, insectivorous.

Description original:
Tornier,G.: Die Kriechthiere Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Beiträge zur Systematik und Descendenzlehre. D.Reimer, Berlin.

Poznámka:
syn. Hemidactylus tropidolepis squamulatus Tornier 1896

Common english name: Nyika Gecko

Hemidactylus squamulatus - habitat, between Filtu and Neghelle Borana, S Ethiopia


Hemidactylus tropidolepis MOCQUARD, 1888


Description:
Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granular scales on the snout convex and keeled, larger than those on the vertex, among which are scattered larger, rounded, keeled tubercles; nostril bordered by the rostral, first labial (sometimes excluded), and 3-4 small nasals, the uppermost in contact with its fellow; upper labials 7~8; lower labials 5—6; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small, strongly keeled scales among which are scattered large, strongly keeled scales; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; males with 6—10 preanal pores forming an uninterrupted series; digits free, moderately dilated, with rather short distal joints, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 4 under the first toe, 7—9 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, cylindrical, tapering, covered above with large imbricate scales, of which some at least of those on the base of the tail are keeled, the keeling becoming less pronounced distally; below with imbricate scales of which the median series are more or less transversely enlarged; length of tail equal to, or slightly shorter than, that of head and body.
Color: Above, grayish fawn or olive brown; a dark streak from nostril passing through the eye to the ear is sometimes present; lips and edge of eyelid sometimes white; back marbled with brown and each scale spotted with black. Below, whitish, most of the scales being minutely punctate with black.

Distribution:
Southern Borana (Dolo Odo) and Ogaden in Ethiopia, Somaliland (Ado, Haud, Nogal Valley) and southern Somalia (Balli, dolní Webi Shebele, Bandera), in places rarely northeast Kenya (Ngatana, Wajir).

Note:
It lives in lower areas of Acacia-Commiphora savanna. Oviparous, insectivorous.

Description:
Mocquard, F.: Sur une collection de reptiles et de batraciens rapportés des pays comalis et de Zanzibar par M. G. Révoil. Mémoires Publies par la Société Philomathique a l’occasion du Centenaire de sa fondation 1788—1888, Paris, pp. 109—134.

Common english name: Ogaden Gecko



Hemidactylus taylori PARKER, 1932


Description:
Total legth of about 130 mm. Snout slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; granular scales on the head small, juxtaposed, intermixed with larger conical tubercles; nostril bordered by the rostraland 4 small nasals, the uppermost separated from its fellow by a single granule; upper labials 10; lower labials 7—8; a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line, an outer, but smaller, pair of chin shields. Back covered with small granular scales among which are scattered strongly keeled trihedral tubercles forming 13—15 more or less regular longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth, rounded, imbricate; males with 8-9 preanal pores forming an uninterrupted series; digits free, moderately dilated, inferiorly with oblique scansors, 84.) under the first toe, 10—12 under the fourth toe; tail, when unregenerate, depressed, carrot-shaped, verticillate, the swollen basal portion marked off by a faint constriction, covered above with juxtaposed granules and 4 rows of long, pointed, heeled tubercles; below with imbricate scales (regenerate tail depressed, leaf-shaped, swollen, covered above with small, uniform, pointed, subimbricate scales) length of tail shorter than that of head and body.
Color: Above, pinkish white, an indistinct dark stripe from the eye to above the ear; nape and back with four or five indistinct dark crossbars, another across root of tail, which is dotted with black. Below, whitish.

Distribution:
Somaliland (Sol Haud) and probably eastern Ethiopia.

Note: Known only from several specimens. Occur in semi-arid hills at altitudes about 800 m asl. under stones and on rocks. Oviparous, insectivorous. Nocturnal.

Description:
Parker,H.W.: Two collections af amphibians and reptiles from British Somaliland. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1932: 335-367



Hemidactylus pauciporosus LANZA, 1978

Hemidactylus pauciporosus - Somaliland
Hemidactylus pauciporosus - Somaliland

Description:
A medium-sized Hemidactylus, reaches up to 90 mm. Head not depressed, [head length (to the mandibular angle): head depth = 2.12], its length 1.33 times its width; snout somewhat spatulate, not compressed, with loreal region sloping at about 45°, concave just behind the nares and mesially in its posterior half, swollen in front of the eyes, its length (to the bone orbit) barely exceeding the distance between the eye and posterior margin of the earopening; ear-opening crescentic, its major axis directed forward and downward, about half the diameter of the exposed eye (not the orbit). Major diameter of exposed eye about 1/4 the head length (to the mandibular angle) and clearly exceeding half the distance between the anterior border of eye and snout (snout-eye 7.6 mm: eye diameter 4.3 mm = 1.76); pupil a vertical slit with lobed margins. Rostral subquadrangular, less than twice as wide as high, with a median cleft above; nostril bordered by rostral and 3 nasals; 1st upper labial barely excluded from nostril; uppermost nasal (as large as the lower and larger than the intermediate one) separated from its fellow by an anterior and posterior azygous granule; 11-11 upper and 9-7 lower labials; mental large, subtriangular. Dorsal granules become larger and subimbricate ventrad along lower portion of flanks, gradually merging into the large, flat, smooth, strongly imbricate abdominal scales ( 12 in an eye diameter in the middle of the belly, longitudinally). Head covered ventrally by juxtaposed or subimbricate, rather small and subequal scales becoming imbricate, larger and heterogenous in the posterior 2/3 of the throat (where lepidosis is anomalous; see under paratypes). Trunk moderately depressed; 5 (2-3) preanal pores forming an uninterrupted series. Antero dorsal side of forearm with some enlarged, striated, convex or feebly keeled tubercles; postero-dorsal side of thigh and tibia with scattered ( 8-9 and 15-20 respectively), more (thigh) or less developed, striated, mostly subtrihedral tubercles; some smaller ones present at base of the 4th and 5th toes. Digits free, strongly dilated; the last 4 elongated with a long, free undilated terminal portion (that of 4th toe with 12 scales along dorsal edge), the innermost one shorter and with only the claw projecting beyond the dilated part; lamellae beneath fingers and toes, from 1st to 5th; 7, 8, 8, 9, 9 and 7/6, 8/9, 9, 10, 10 respectively. Tip of adpressed hindlimb extends slightly beyond elbow of adpressed forelimb. Tail rather strongly depressed throughout its length (8.7 mm wide and 6.2 mm deep just behind the hemipenial swelling; width: depth ratio = 1.40), tapering, without any basal constriction, longer than the head+ body even though regenera ted distally, covered above with small, subimbricate, striated scales (disposed in 9-10 transverse rows on each proximal annulus) and 8 (basally ) -6 rows of large, pointed, carinate and striated tubercles, below with flat, smooth, imbricate scales, the median series of which is transversely enlarged. Colouration (in alcohol, much as in life): dorsal parts hazel grey with some irregular blackish-grey shadings on snout, sides of head, anterior third of trunk, tail and limbs; underside whitish; digits blackish-grey; tail greyish. [Lanza]

Distribution:
Widespread in the rocky, semi-desert districts of northern Somalia (Somaliland), from sea level up to at least 1500 m. As observed at Galgala, it also lives in buildings. Probably adjacent parts of Somaliland (Ethiopia, Djibouti).

Note:
It inhabits semi-desert rocky areas from 0-1500 m asl. Nocturnal. Insectivorous. Oviparous. The eggs are of the usual oval, hard-shelled, geckonid type and measure 9-9.5 X 10-11 mm.

Description:
Lanza B 1978. On some new or interesting east African amphibians and reptiles. Monitore Zoologico Italiano supplemento 10 (14): 229-297



Homopholis fasciata (BOULENGER 1890)


Description:
Snout once and a half to once and three quarters as long as the orbital diameter”, as long as the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, latter small, roundish; granules on head somewhat unequal but mostly smaller than the dorsals; rostral without median cleft; nostril bordered by first labial and 3 nasals, the uppermost separated from its fellow by a single granule; upper labials 9—11; lower labials 9-10; mental small; a pair of slightly enlarged postmentals flanked by smaller diminishing chin shields. Back and limbs covered above with small, unequal, irregular or roundish, smooth, juxtaposed scales; males with 2 preanal pores; digits free, strongly dilated, inferiorly with slightly oblique, undivided scansors merging into transversely dilated shields, 7-8 (+ 3) under the first toe, 8—9 (+ 4) under the fourth toe; tail cylindrical, tapering, covered above and below with small, smooth scales, those below imbricate; length of tail rather more than half the length of head and body. Exoeptionally the rostral and as many as 4 nasals may border the nostril, the uppermost nasal may be in contact with its fellow on the opposite side; lower labials 10—11. Midbody scale-rows 53 (Scortecci).
Color: Above, light gray, from nostril, or at least from eye, a dark dorsolateral streak extends to tail and is united with its fellow by a series of crossbars so as to form a ladder-like pattern; tail with 8—11 transverse bands. Below, whitish.
PLATYPHOLIS FASCIATA ERLANGERI (Steindachner): Homopholis erlangeri Steindachner, 1906, Ann. Hofmus. Wien. 21, p. 149, pl. VII.
Until recently (1932) erlangen', originally described from specimens taken near “Umudu” (= ?Afmadu) close to the Juba River, was considered a synonym of fasciata and all Somali records of the former appear under the latter name. Typical fasciata is a southern form, found in Kenya and Tanganyika Territory, Whereas the specimens from British Somaliland examined by the author agree in colour with erlangeri. Where the two intergrade is uncertain. The species is arboreal and known in British territory only from the Sol Hand and Buran [in PARKER].

Distribution:
In Ethiopia locally in the south. It is known from a vicinity of the Ethiopian Genale river, which is actually upper stream of the Juba river.

Note:
It occupies large trees, like fig trees, baobabs, or large acacias. Nocturnal and crepuscular activity. The female lays two eggs in size 15 x 20 mm. Insectivorous.

Description:
Boulenger, G. A.: First report on additions to the lizard collection in the British Museum (Natural History). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1890: 77—86

Common english name: Banded Velvet Gecko



Holodactylus africanus BOETTGER 1893


Description:
Snout subtriangular, as long as, or slightly longer than, the distance between the eye and the ear—opening; latter small, vertically suboval, its vertical diameter one third to one quarter that of the orbit, a small white tubercle on its anterior border; head cov- ered with small, finely ribbed or keeled granules, subequal except for a few enlarged ones on the snout where they are very variable, larger than those on the back; rostral subquadraugular, not quite twice as broad as high, with median cleft above or upper border emarginate with a single scale in the emargination; nostril in an entire or semidivided circular nasal which is reduced above to a narrow rim margined by small scales, separated from the rostral and first labial by 1—3 granules, separated from its fellow anteriorly by 3-5 scales; upper labials 9—12; lower labials (8) 9—13; mental subquadrangular, sub-pentagonal, or rounded posteriorly; no postmentals or chin shields differentiated from the minute gular granules. Back and limbs covered above with small, subuniform, smooth, rough or keeled, juxtaposed granules; limbs long, the adpressed hind limb reaching the wrist or elbow of the forelimb; ventral granules slightly smaller than the dorsal; on either side of the anal opening posteriorly a pair of enlarged conical tubercles; tail very variable. Color: Above, light sandy gray to creamy yellow, uniform or variegated with reddish brown; eyelids edged with creamy white; from eye to eye across occiput an ill-deffined, crescentic, dusky or reddish-brown band, followed on back by four others between fore and hind limbs, two or three more on tail. Below, whitish, uniform.

Distribution:
From northern Tanzania to Ethiopia, Somalia and Somaliland.
In Ethiopia south (Omo basin), along Kenya border and across Ogaden to Somaliland. Probably also Djibouti.

Note:
Shy species; much of their time spends in moist burrows, emerging only long enough to feed occasionally. Often staying nearby termite hill. Termites also form the main part of his diet.

Description:
Boettger,O.: Übersicht der von Prof. C. Keller anlässlich der Ruspoli'schen Expedition nach den Somaliländern gesammelten Reptilien und Batrachier. Zool. Anz.16(416): 113-119

Common english name: African Whole-toed Gecko

Holodactylus africanus - habitat, E of Mega, S Ethiopia


Holodactylus cornii SCORTECCI, 1930


Description:
Upper surface of head flat; rostral separated from nasal by 5-7 granules; nasal separated from its fellow anteriorly by 8-14 granules; upper labial: 13-18; lower labials 15—18; adpressed hind limb reaches elbow or axilla of backward pressed forelimb. The granules on the head to be smaller than those on the back, a character of dubious value in a genus where much variation in size of scales occurs; certain diferences in tail are also noted. The carefully derailed original description should be consulted. Above, whitish, grayish, or yellowish; canthus rostralis lighter; lower eyelid blue; from tip of snout to tip of tail a pale vertebral line flanked by broad brown stripes which are most distinct on occiput, nape and tail, especially where crossing the following series of broad, dark, transverse bands, the latter separated from one another by narrow interspaces, one across the snout, one across the orbital region and extending on to lower jaw, one across the occiput, one on the neck, four on the body are somewhat curved posteriorly, and three on the tail, the last broadest; flanks and limbs with scattered circular brown spots. Below, whitish, uniform.

Distribution:
Somaliland and Somalia (Nogal Valley 400 m asl., Gardo, Migiurtinia, Obbia). Probably most eastern Ethiopian somali region (Haud, Ogaden).

Description original:
Scortecci, G : Secondo contributo alla conoscenza dei rettili della Somalia Italiana. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale in Milano, 69:127—152.



Hemitheconyx taylori PARKER, 1930


Description:
Snout bluntly rounded, as long as, or slightly longer than, the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; latter large, round, its diameter about half that of the orbit; head covered with regular polygonal swollen scales, each of which has a small central papilla, those on the temporal region not larger than those on the occiput; rostral subquadrangular, twice as broad as high, with median cleft above or upper border emarginate with a single scale in the emargination; nostril in an entire or semidivided circular nasal which is in contact with rostral and first labial, separated from its fellow by 4—5 scales; upper labials 7-8; lower labials 6—8; mental subpentagonal, sometimes bordered by 2-3 slightly enlarged postmentals, usually no definite chin-shields the adjacent granules but little larger than the gular granules. Back and limbs covered above with small, polygonal, juxtaposed, raised granules, intermixed with numerous, enlarged, obtusely keeled tubercles which are largest dorso—laterally, where they are arranged in transverse triads; ventral scales rather irregular, cycloid, imbricate; males with an uninterrupted series of 23428 preano-femoral pores; reproduced tail without marked annular constriction, shorter, more globular, and without enlarged tubercles.
Color: Above, pinkish cream; snout and sides of head smudged with darker; from eye to eye across nape a horseshoe—shaped dusky band, a second on lumbar region, a third on narrowed root of tail, and a fourth near middle of tail, these bands, thought very strongly marked in juveniles, tend to disappear with age and must be almost entirely absent in adults. Bellow white, uniform, except for the last caudal band which alone is continued across the lower surface to form an annulus.

Distribution:
The species was long time known only from British Somaliland, from the Nogal Valley, and from the area of Gardo and Boran in Italian Somaliland. Later It was also found in the northern part of Ethiopia's Ogaden.

Note:
Semi-desert at altitudes 700 - 1600 m asl. Nocturnal, terrestrial gecko. Oviparous. Insectivorous. Termites are the main part of his diet. Like geckos of the genus Holodactylus survives drought season in deep holes, often inside termite hills.

Description:
Parker,H.W. Three new Reptiles from Somaliland. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 6: 603-606

Common english name: Taylor's Fat-tail Gecko



Lygodactylus grandisonae PASTEUR 1962


Short description:
A small gecko, maximum length up to 50 mm SVL. Body cylindrical, slightly Dorsolateral compressed, head short. The eye big, pupil rounded. On the digits well visible claws, paired lamelae. Length of tail as SVL. Scales on body small, smooth, homogenous, granulose. Midbody scale rows 218. Preanal pores in males. The dorsum pale brown, underside whitish. On throat three dark longitudinal bands.

Distribution:
Murri (04°14’N 40°42’E), 900 m, Ethiopia-Kenya border. Probably adjacent part of Somalia.

Note:
Poorly known species. Known only from the type locality. In Spawls et.al 2001 as Lygodactylus grandisoni

Description original:
Pasteur, G.: Notes préliminaires sur les lygodactyles (gekkonidés). 11. Diagnose de quelques Lygodactylus d’Afrique. Bulletin l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, 24 :606—614.



Common english name: Grandison’s Dward gecko



Lygodactylus gutturalis (BOCAGE, 1873)


Description:
Snout broad, the distance from its end to the anterior border of the eye about equal to, or slightly greater than, the interorbital distance anteriorly, slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, which is small, roundish; nostril pierced above the first labial, so posterior to (rarely above) the suture between rostral and first labial, being between the first labial and 2—3, normally 2, nasals, the uppermost separated from (very rarely in contact with) its fellow by 1—2 granules; upper labials 6~9; lower labials 5-8; mental entire, followed by 3 small postmentals. Males with 6-12, normally 6—8, preanal pores; fourth toe with 5—6 pairs of scansors beneath dilated portion; original tail below with imbricate scales of which the median series is transversely enlarged. Nostril between first labial and 2-3 nasals; mental entire, followed by 1-3, usually 2, small postmentals.
Color: Above, grayish or brownish, spotted and streaked with darker and lighter, these mottlings often taking the form of ocelli. Below, white, throat in both sexes with three or two chevron-shaped markings, where the latter then the third is represented by an arrow- head mark or spot between the posteriorly directed arms of the second chevron, occasionally these markings may coalesce to form a network; belly (yellow in life) immaculate; tail with a median series of dusky spots.
Specimens from FMNH, "Belgian Congo": Upper labials 6-8, average of 36 sides 6.9; preanal pores in the five males 7-9, average 7.6. Largest specimen, a female, measures 74 (38+36) mm [according to LOVERIDGE as Lygodactylus picturatus gutturalis].

Distribution:
Senegal through Sudan and Tanzania, Guinea Bissau, Somalia (LANZA 1983), Ethiopia, W Kenya, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Central African Republic., Cameroon, Togo. In Ethiopia west from Rift Valley.

Note:
It inhabit highland savannas and forests up to 2000 m asl. Also occupies buildings in towns and villages. Diurnal. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description:
Bocage,J.V.B.: Melanges erpetologiques. II. Sur quelques reptiles et batraciens nouveaux, rares ou peu connus d‘Afrique occidentale. Jorn. Acad. Sci. Lisboa 4: 209-227

Common english name: Chevron-throated dwarf gecko

Lygodactylus gutturalis - habitat, front of Shebel Hotel, Debre Marcos, NW Ethiopia


Lygodactylus keniensis PARKER 1936


Description:
Snout broad, the distance from its end to the anterior border of the eye about equal to, or slightly greater than, the interorbital distance anteriorly, slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, which is small, roundish; nostril pierced above the first labial, so posterior to (rarely above) the suture between rostral and first labial, being between the first labial and 2—3, normally 2, nasals, the uppermost separated from (very rarely in contact with) its fellow by 1—2 granules; upper labials 6~9; lower labials 5-8; mental entire, followed by 3 small postmentals. Males with 6-12, normally 6—8, preanal pores; fourth toe with 5—6 pairs of scansors beneath dilated portion; original tail below with imbricate scales of which the median series is transversely enlarged. Nostril between first labial and 2 nasals; mental entire, followed by 2-3 small postmentals.
Color: Above, head and shoulders bright mustard yellow, spotted and streaked with darker; a dark streak from nostrils through eye to shoulder, sometimes continued to hind limb as a series of feehly-marked ocelli; rest of body, limbs, and tail brownish, spotted and streaked with darker. Below, white, throat of both sexes with an ovshaped spot on the postmental region united with the apices of two black, chevron-shaped markings followed by indications of a third; tail immaculate.

Distribution:
Ethiopia, Kenya. In Ethiopia Rift Valley.

Behavior:
Diurnal. Oviparous. Females lay two eggs in cracks in the bark, stones or planks in a fences, or in the rosette of sanseviera leaves (Langano).

Description:
Parker,H.W.: Reptiles and amphibians collected by the Lake Rudolf Rift Valley Expedition, 1934. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 18; 594-609

Common english name: Kenya Dwarf Gecko

Lygodactylus keniensis - habitat, Langano, S Ethiopia


Lygodactylus sudanensis LOVERIDGE 1935
as Lygodactylus picturatus sudanensis LOVERIDGE 1935

Description:
Differs from all other described races of picturatus in the conspicuous black median streak on the throat of the male which is fused with an inner ∩-shaped marking, uniting, or just failing to unite it with the outer ∩-shaped marking, and usually fused with a posterior basal patch or blotch which rarely retains any resemblance to the third chevron of L.p.gutturalis (Bocage). Throat of female immaculate white. Upper labials 6—7 (range 6—9, average 7.4 for 16 counts); lower labials 6—6 (range 6—8, average 6.5 for 16 counts); nostril between the first upper labial and 3 (range 2—3) nasals, frequently separated from the lower postnasal by a narrow rim resulting from an upper prolongation of the first labial; supranasals separated by 2 (range 1-3) granules (or by an upward and backward prolongation of the rostral in the Singa gecko); mental entire; postmentals 3 (except in one specimen which has only 2 and another with 4); preanal pores 7 (range 7—8, only one of the 5 males has 8).
Coloration - In alcohol. Male. Above, uniformly pale olive, a burnt sienna (or black) line from nostril through eye to the flank where it terminates behind fore arm by giving off one or two spots; a second, but shorter, line from the commissure of the mouth; a black spot on the middle of the snout; an undulating transverse bar across the forehead connecting the orbits anteriorly; two or three more or less parallel series of short, longitudinal, brown streaks on the occiput, nape and anterior portion of back; the outermost black chevron of the throat extends backwards and upwards to above the base of the fore arm. Below white, the throat with black markings as described in the diagnosis [LOVERIDGE].

Distribution:
West Eritrea, Sudan (Sennar - Blue Nile, Wau - Bahr al Ghazal).

Note:
Tree and shrub savanna. They occupies tree trunks. Females lays eggs, insectivorous. Diurnal.

Description original:
Loveridge, A. 1935. New geckos of the genus Lygodactylus from Somaliland, Sudan, Kenya, and Tanganyika. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 48:195-200.



Lygodactylus scorteccii PASTEUR 1959


Description:
Appartient au groupe des Lygodactylus picturatus chez lesquels la pigmentation de la tête et de la partie antérieure du dos difière de celle du reste du corps, avec une brusque démarcation au niveau de l’insertion des membres antérieurs.
Au sein de ce groupe, L. p. scorteccii est puissamment individualisé. L’animal est noir. -Ce noir n’est toutefois pas absolu, bien entendu, et permet de dégager les caractéristiques suivantes:
1 - ‘Sur la tête et les épaules, des raies noir absolu sur fond gris forment un dessin qui s'apparente à celui. de L. p. picturatus (Peters), mais alors que les raies brunes de ce dernier sont soit très fines, soit fragmentées, chez L. p. scorteccii elles sont très larges, bien plus larges que les lignes grises qui les séparent, si bien qu’il serait plus exact de parler de stries grises sur fond noir.
2 - Le'reste du dos et la face dorsale de la queue ne sont pas tout à fait noirs, mais gris extrêmement foncé.
3 - Toute la face ventrale est gris sombre, sauf les parties noires de la gorge: le menton est tout noir, mais le pigment noir se résoud déjà en 4 lignes qui, elles-mêmes, se résolvent en files de points après le niveau des oreilles.
L’äbsence' de la moindre nuance du jaune vif qui caractérise la tête et les épaules de L. p. keniensis Parker et L.p. picturatus est évidemment totale. L. p. scorteccii diffère en outre du second -—— son voisin géographiqué —par deux postmentonnières seulement.
Des critères accessoires et une description détaillée de la nouvelle sousespéce seront donnês dans un article du Bulletin de l’Institut français l’Afrique Noire qui, en principe, serasous presse quand paraîtront ces lignes [PASTEUR in original].

Description original:
Pasteur, G.: Diagnose de Lygodactylus picturatus scorteccii subsp. nov. (gekkonidés). Societe des Sciences Naturelles et Physiques du Maroc, (7):105-106.

Common english name: Scortecci's Dwarf Gecko

Lygodactylus scorteccii - habitat, Turmi, S Ethiopia

Lygodactylus somalicus LOVERIDGE 1935


Description:
Total length of about 60 mm. Snout moderately elongate, the distance from its end to the anterior border of the eye slightly greater than the interorbital width anteriorly, slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the ear—opening, which is a very small sunken slit; nostril pierced above the suture between rostral and first labial, being between these shields and 2 nasals; mental entire but deeply concave posteriorly to accommodate a large and entirely separate postmental which is followed by 3 small postmentals; original tail below with imbricate scales of which the two median series are slightly enlarged.
Color. Above, ashy brown; and dark streak from nostril passes through eye to shoulder and may be continued on flank; back with a slightly darker area forming a broad, though indistinct, vertebral band which narrows and deepens to form a distinct line upon the tail. Below, white, immaculate.

Distribution:
Somalia, south and east Ethiopia and northeastern Kenya.

Behavior:
Savanna at altitudes 200 - 1500 m asl. Tree truncks, fences in towns; insectivorous, oviparous.

Description:
Loveridge, A.: New geckos of the genus Lygodactylus from Somaliland, Sudan, Kenya, and Tanganyika. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 48:195-200.

Common english name: Somali Dwarf Gecko

Lygodactylus somalicus - habitat, Filtu, SE Ethiopia


Pristurus crucifer (VALENCIENNES 1861)


Description:
Snout subacuminate, not compressed and beak-like, broad; ear-opening small, subcircular or obliquely oval; forehead not concave; nostril in a single or divided nasal or between 3 slightly swollen nasals; mental about as long as, or slightly shorter than, broad; no definite postmental or chin shields. Ventral scales larger than dorsal granules; limbs with large imbricate scales and some scale-like granules, slender, the adpressed hind limb reaching the ear or eye; claws long, longer than the ungual scales; tail of o" compressed with a low, scarcely serrate, dorsal crest, and a subcaudal keel of enlarged, slightly pointed, imbricate scales, tail of males scarcely compressed and without crest or keel; tail much longer than head and body.
Color: Above, pale gray or grayish brown; neck with or without one or more deep black spots; back with or without a light (yellow in life) vertebral stripe, flanked by white spots which may be almost confluent, and seven or eight more or less distinct pairs of quadrangular brownish blotches, or crossbars; tail faintly barred. Below, whitish, chin light yellow; chin and throat usually mottled with gray.

Distribution:
In Ethiopia southern Borana, Ogaden, further Eritrea, Somalia and Somaliland, south of Arabian penninsula (Yemen).

Note:
Diurnal, terrestrial gecko. They activate mostly in the morning or late afternoon. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description:
Valenciennes, A.: Note sur les animaux d’Abysinnie rapportés par M. Courbon. Compte Rendu des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, 52:433-434

Common english name: Valenciennes Rock Gecko

Pristurus crucifer - habitat, north of Dire Dawa, E Ethiopia


Pristurus flavipunctatus RÜPPELL 1835

Pristurus flavipunctatus - Somaliland

Description:
Total length of about 90 mm. Shout subacuminate, not compressed or beak-like, broad; ear—opening small, subeircular or obliquely oval; forehead slightly concave; nostril between rostral and 2—3 nasals; mental only two-thirds as long as broad; usually 2-4 slightly enlarged scales which might be called postmentals, similarly the labials bordered inferiorly by irregularly enlarged scales. Ventral scales larger than dorsal granules; limbs with granules like those on the back as well as imbricate scales, moderate, the adpressed hind limb reaching the axilla, shoulder, or car (in young); tail of males strongly compressed with a dorsal crest of lanceolate scales, which may be continued on to the lumbar region or as far as the nape (depending on age), and a subcaudal keel of enlarged, pointed, imbricate scales, or crest of lanceolate scales; tail of 9 less compressed and with a much lower and less regular crest which, if continued on to body, only as a series of enlarged granules; on primary regenerated tails, whether single or bifid, the crest is well developed, on secondary regenerated tails it is absent; tail much longer than head and body.
Color: Above, pale or dark grayish brown; from nostril through eye to temporal region a more or less distinct dark streak; shoulder of males with a light-edged black spot and Occasionally other ocelli-like variegations; back with or without a light (orange or yellow in life) Vertebral stripe (at least in females and young), flanked by more or less distinct dark spots or crossbars; flank spotted or lineolated with bright red or orange; tail barred with darker. Below, whitish, uniform, or throat and sides of belly spotted with dark brown; belly sometimes dotted with red.

Distribution:
E Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Farasan Islands, Egypt, Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea, Jordan.

Description original:
Rüppell, E.: Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig, entdeckt und beschrieben. Amphibien. S. Schmerber, Frankfurt a. M.

Common english name: Rüppell’s Semaphore Gecko

Pristurus flavipunctatus - habitat, Awash Arba, Afar kilil, E Ethiopia


Pristurus phillipsii BOULENGER 1895


Description:
Total length of about 80 mm. Snout acuminate, triangular, almost beak-like; ear-opening small, obliquely oval or an oblique slit; forehead not concave; nostril in a single or semidivided nasal or between 2—4 slightly swollen nasals; mental about as long as broad; no definite postmental or chin shields. Ventral granules subequal to dorsal; limbs with granules like those on back and imbricate scales, slender, the adpressed hind limb reaching the ear or eye; claws short, as long as, or shorter than, the ungual scales; tail of d‘ compressed with a low, scarcely serrate, dorsal crest, and a subcaudal keel of enlarged, slightly pointed, imbricate scales, tail of 9 not or but slightly compressed and without crest or keel; tail longer than head and body.
Color: Above, pale gray or grayish brown; neck with one or more deep black spots; from eye to eye across occiput a semicircular dark band, interrupted mesially; back with or without a light vertebral stripe, flanked by seven or eight more or less distinct pairs of quadrangular brownish blotches, or Crossbars; limbs with dusky crossbars and, on the hinder side, light spots; tail faintly barred. Below, whitish, throat and sides of belly usually mottled with gray.

Distribution:
Somaliland and adjacent parts of Ethiopia.

Note1:
Diurnal activity. It inhabit stony and sandy xeric savanna. Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Note2:
According to Lanza 1983, is Pristurus somalicus synonym of Pristurus phillipsii.

Description original:
Boulenger, G. A.: On the reptiles and batrachians obtained by Mr. E. Lort-Phillips in Somaliland. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 16:165-169

Common english name: Somali Rock Gecko



Pristurus rupestris BLANFORD 1874


Description:
Head short and high; snout acuminate, once and two fifths to once and a half the diameter of the orbit; forehead scarcely concave; ear-opening oval, oblique, about one third the diameter of the orbit. Limbs long, the hind limb when stretched forwards reaching the ear-opening or between the shoulder and the earopening; digits long and slender. Snout covered with polygonal convex scales; the remainder of the head, the body, and the limbs covered with small granules; those on the belly larger, though smaller than the scales on the snout. Rostral more than twice as broad as high, with median cleft above; nostril pierced between the rostral and two or three nasals; seven or eight upper aod five or six lower labials; mental very large, truncate posteriorly; no regular chin-shields. Tail longer than head and body, slender, strongly compressed, keeled above and beneath; the two keels denticulate, the upper most strongly, especially in males, in which it forms a regular crest, which, however, never extends to the body. Grey-brown or olive above, clouded with darker, and frequently with round lighter spots; a dark streak passing through the eye; small bright red dots may be present on the sides of the body; sometimes a light reddish vertebral band [according to PARKER].

Distribution:
SW Jordan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, probably in Sudan, N Somalia, S Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar.

Note:
Semi-arid areas, coastal deserts and hills up to 2000 m asl (Yemen).
Diurnal activity, they feed small insect. Oviparous.

Description original:
Blanford,W.T.: Descriptions of new lizards from Persia and Baluchistàn. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 13: 453-455

Common english name: Blanford’s Semaphore Gecko



Pristurus somalicus PARKER, 1932


Description:
Head short and deep; snout depressed, pointed, a little longer than the diameter of the orbit (not eye); forehead concave ; nostrils directed almost vertically; ear-opening small, oblique. Hind-limb reaching the ear; digits and claws short, the latter about as long as, or shorter than, the ungual scales. Head and body covered with small granules, largest on the snout and belly. Rostra1 large, with a median cleft, the portion visible from above nearly half as long as broad; nostril in a single nasal which is notched and fissured above and separated from its fellow by 3 granules; 5 or 6 upper and 5 lower labials; symphysial large, truncate behind; no chin-shields. Tail compressed, with dorsal and ventral keels of enlarged scales; scarcely serrate. Pale brown above; a semi-circular dark band, interrupted mesially, from eye to eye across the occiput; 11 pairs of subquadrangular dark spots, not well marked, on the back; flanks with 3 indefinite rows of lighter dots and some darker spots; 2 distinct black spots in front of the shoulder, the uppar the larger ; tail with regular alternating cross-bars of darker and lighter; some dusky cross-bars on the limbs and light dots on the hinder side of the thighs. Belly white, immaculate; throat with 3 transverse series of dark grey blotches. Length from snout to vent 39 mm.; tail 40; fore limb 15; hind-limb 21 [according to PARKER].

Note:
According to Lanza 1983, is Pristurus somalicus synonym of Pristurus phillipsii.

Description original:
Parker,H.W. Two collections af amphibians and reptiles from British Somaliland. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1932: 335-367

Common english name: Somali Semaphore Gecko



Ptyodactylus hasselquistii (DONNDORFF 1798)

Ptyodactylus hasselquistii - Karima, Sudan
Ptyodactylus hasselquistii - Khartoum, Sudan

Description:
Total length of about 150 mm. Proportions variable; form slender or stout; snout long, rounded, much longer than the distance between eye and ear—opening; latter moderate, vertically oval, its diameter about half that of the orbit; rostral nearly twice as broad as high, without median cleft above; granules on snout small, scarcely convex, smooth, larger than those on occiput and back; nostril between rostral, first labial (either of which occasionally may be excluded), and 3, rarely 4, nasals, which may be slightly or strongly swollen, the anterior separated from its fellow by 1-2 granules; upper labials 11-15; lower labials 9—15; mental twice as long as broad, usually in contact with the gular granules, rarely bordered by a pair of large postmentals in contact on the median line; flanked by a series of chin shields or sublabials which postero-laterally merge into the gular granules instead of the abrupt transition immediately behind the mental. Back and limbs covered above with small, unequal, smooth, juxta-posed granules intermixed with 8—14 rows of slightly keeled or almost smooth tubercles; ventral scales scarcely larger, subimbricate; limbs moderate, slender (? or stout), the adpressed hind limb reaching the shoulder or ear; subdigital shields actually under the first toe 2-5, 9-13 under the fourth toe; tail depressed, verticillate, with median sulcus, covered above with small, smooth, granular scales and 4-6 rows of small, smootbish or keeled tubercles, below with subequal imbricate scales; on either side of base of tail in both sexes are 2—3 white tooth-like tubercles; length of tail slightly longer than the length of head and body.
Color: Above, whitish to sandy gray or dark gray-brown; uniform, or usually a brown streak from nostril to eye which may continue on to meet its fellow on nape; crown reticulate or spotted with dark or reddish brown; hack with a more or less distinct or broken series of chevron-shaped brown crossbars; limbs, digits and tail more or less barred. Below, white, uniform. Coloration of course varies in accordance with the environment, pale yellowish brown with numerous circular spots of pale lilac—blue [LOVERIDGE].
Slender; body slightly depressed; head elongately or shortly oviform, slightly depressed; nostrils more or less swollen, formed by the rostral, first labial, and three nasals; eye large. Upper labials 11 to 14, generally 13; lower labials 11 to 13, usually 12. Length of limbs variable, generally moderately long and slender; the fore limb half a finger's length in advance of the snout, or the tip of the third digit only reaching to between the eye and the snout; hind limb reaches the shoulder or does not extend beyond the axilla ; disks only moderately large ; the lamellse vary from 8—8, 8—9, to 9—9. Tail slightly depressed, with usually a feeble longitudinal sulcus above, more or less verticillate, with or without small tubercles on the verticils. Skin soft and porous ; granules moderately large, conical, smooth or carinate (Hejaz/Egypt); tubercles moderate, numerous, more or less carinate ; enlarged non-carinate or carinate (Hejaz[Egypt) granules before the eye, about twice or three times as large as the dorsal granules ; no enlarged tubercles on the side of the head, but some of the granules larger than the others; a few enlarged tubercles on the radial section of the fore limb and on the hind limb generally, exceptionally only on the thighs and tibial portion, or rarely entirely absent on both limbs. Ventrals smooth, small, subhexagonal, imbricate, largest on the femoral and interfemoral areas. Pale sandy grey or even whitish above, but varying in accordance with its surroundings; generally a brown line from the snout to the eye, continued more or less behind the eye above the ear to the nape of the neck, where it meets its fellow of the opposite side, or the nuchal portion may become broken up; top of the head reticulately brown spotted. Transverse more or less V-shaped brown bands on the back, frequently broken up; limbs and tail generally barred with brown; underparts white [ANDERSON].

Distribution:
Not in Ethiopia. Probably in northern Eritrea.

Note:
Nocturnal. Synantropic species, in some places on building in center of towns (Khartoum). Oviparous. Insectivorous.

Description original:
Donndorff, JOHANN AUGUST: Zoologische Beyträge zur XIII. Ausgabe des Linnéischen Natursystems. Vol. 3. Leipzig, Weidmannschen, vi+980 pp.

Common english name: Yellow Fan-fingered Gecko

Ptyodactylus hasselquistii - habitat, Karima, N Sudan


Ptyodactylus ragazzii ANDERSON 1898


Description:
Form stout; body rather short and somewhat depressed ; head usually more or less depressed; nostril but little swollen, defined by the rostral, labial, and three nasals, but in some the first labial is excluded. Eye moderate; 12-15 upper and lower labials. Limbs short and stout; disks large; 8 to 10 lamellae, generally 10—10, frequently 9—10, occasionally 9—9, rarely 8—9. Tail thick at the base, rounded, verticillate, with indications of a median longitudinal sulcus and usually two tubercles on the hinder margin of the verticils. Granules moderately large; tubercles keeled or nearly smooth, generally present on the fore and hind limbs ; a few small tubercles on the temporal region, before the ear and sometimes about the gape. Ventrals rather large. Dark or pale brown, usually broadly reticulated with darker, enclosing large light coloured spots, four to five from the occiput to the pelvis and with a series on the sides of the trunk, but the reticulations and spots are sometimes nearly obsolete and the general colour becomes grey-brown. Limbs either marked like the trunk, or more or less barred with brown; tail broadly barred with dark brown. Underparts whitish. The head in all the foregoing modifications of this species (P. hasselquistii) is marked more or less by three principal depressions, one situated behind each nostril, and the other on the snout before the eyes, and continued on to the forehead [ANDERSON].

Distribution:
S Algeria, Libya, Mali, Ghana, Niger, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Togo, Benin, Chad, Cameroon, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Egypt, N Somalia, Mauritania, Djibouti

Note:
They occupies stony fields, rocky outcrops and stony hills in desert and semi-desert areas. The species displays strong territorial behavior. Mainly nocturnal activity. Insectivorous, oviparous. It occurs in fairly high densities in suitable localities.

Description:
Anderson, J.: Zoology of Egypt. Vol. l. Reptilia and Batrachia. B. Quaritch, London

Common english name: Ragazzi’s Fan-footed gecko

Ptyodactylus ragazzii - habitat, Danakil, NE Ethiopia


Stenodactylus sthenodactylus (LICHTENSTEIN 1823)

Stenodactylus sthenodactylus - Egypt
Stenodactylus sthenodactylus - Egypt
Stenodactylus sthenodactylus - Egypt

Short description:
Total length of about 100 mm. Snout short, bluntly pointed, much longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; latter moderate or small, roundish or vertically oval, its diameter a third to half that of the orbit; rostIal slightly broader to once and a half times as broad as high, with median cleft above; granules on snout convex, rugose or keeled, subequal to, or larger than, those on occiput and back; nostril between rostral, first labial and 3 strongly swollen nasals, the anterior separated from its fellow by 1—2 granules; upper labials 9-15; lower labials 8—15; mental as long as, or longer than, broad; no postmentals or chin shields differentiated from the gular granules. Back and limbs covered above with small, subequal, flat or slightly convex, smooth or rugose, juxtaposed granules; ventral scales subequal to dorsals, juxtaposed; limbs slender, the adpressed hind limb reaching the axilla; on either side of the base of the tail in both sexes, though less pronounced in females, is a single row of 2-4 white tooth-liketubercles; tail shorter than head and body.
Color: Above, fawn or rich buff, occasionally a U-shaped brown marking from eye to eye around occiput; eyelid anteriorly has a white margin; irregular sides of the pupil bright yellow; crown and back with variable shades of purplish brown reticulations enclosing white or yellowish spots, a series of dark brown saddle-like markings or paired blotches present or absent; tail alternately barred with darker and lighter. Below, white, uniform; tail yellow.

Distribution:
Morocco, Western Sahara, Libya Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Mauritania, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, N Kenya, Mali.

Behavior:
Terrestrial, nocturnal gecko. Takes refuge under rocks and stones. Inhabits flat rock-strewn sand and gravel plains with fairly good vegetation cover.

Description:
Lichtenstein, M. HINRICH C.: Verzeichniss der Doubletten des zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss./ T. Trautwein, Berlin.

Common english name: Elegant gecko



Tropiocolotes somalicus PARKER 1942

Tropiocolotes somalicus - Somaliland

Description:
Total length of about 80 mm. Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; rostral broader than high, with median cleft above; granules on head keeled; nostril between rostral, first labial and 2 nasals; upper labials 7; lower labials 6; mental triangular; a pair of large postmentals in Contact on the median line, adjacent chin-shields much smaller and widely separated and in contact with the first and second lower labials; no other enlarged chin-shields distinguishable as such. Back, limbs and belly covered with large strongly keeled scales, of which 4 of the largest dorsals equal the distance between nostril and eye; midbody scale-rows 35—41; limbs moderate, the adpressed hind limb reaching the elbow; subdigital lamellae tricarinate.
Color: Above, gray brown; a dark brown streak from nostril through eye to above shoulder; back with a few darker flecks; tail with darker and lighter crossbars, Below whitish, with a very few, small dark dots [Loveridge].
Snout a little longer than the distance between the eye and the ear. Head covered with keeled granules; rostral broader than high, with a median cleft; nostril pierced between the rostral, first upper labial and 2 small nasals; seven upper and six lower labials; mental large, triangu- lar, followed by a pair of large chin-shields which form a median suture; posterior chin-shields much smaller and widely separated, making contact with the first and second lower labials. Scales of the body, both dorsal and ventral, large and strongly keeled, about 37 round the middle of the body, 4 of the largest dorsals equal in length to the distance between the nostril and the anterior border of the eye. Limbs covered with strongly keeled scales; hind-limb reaching the elbow; subdigital lamellae tricarinate. Grey-brown above, with a few darker flecks; a dark brown band from the nostril through the eye, above the shoulder; upper lip white, brown spotted; anterior border of eye white; tail with alternating light and dark transverse bars; lower surfaces white, with a few, very small dark dots. Length from snout to vent 28 mm. Tail (regenerated) 35 mm [Parker].

Distribution:
Eritrea (Dahlac archipelago), Djibouti and Somaliland, probably adjacent parts of Ethiopia.

Behavior:
Apparently confined to the very arid coastal sandy zone, strewn with stones, almost devoid of vegetation. Oviparous, nocturnal.

Description:
Parker, H. W. The lizards of British Somaliland. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 91: 1—101
Tropiocolotes tripolitanus somalicus

Common english name: Parker’s Pigmy Gecko

Tropiocolotes somalicus - habitat, Somaliland





















































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